Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Calliandra surinamensis - Powder Puff Flower

Common name : powder puff flower, pink tassel flower, pink powderpuff, Surinamese stickpea

Classification : Magnoliophyta - Magnoliopsida- Fabales - Fabaceae - Mimosoideae - Ingeae





Origin : South American

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Description :

Fast growing evergreen shrub/small tree, can grow up to 15 feet in height.

Leaves alternate, evenly bipinnate compound. Leaflet 2 -4 inch, oblong, entire margin.

Flower pink colour, pleasant fragrance, showy.

Fruit pod 3- 6 inch length, flat, turn brown and dry when matured, dehiscent, contain 5 -6 seeds.

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Cultivation :

Propagation by seeds.




Monday, March 22, 2010

Cucumis melo Inodorus 蜜瓜


Common name : Honeydew, 蜜瓜, 白兰瓜


Family : Cucurbitaceae


Honeydew is an American name for the French variety White Antibes.





Cultivation

Originated from France.

Introduced to China by Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the US in 1940s, who donated the seeds when visiting China. It is grown near Lanzhou兰州, the capital city of Gansu province甘肃省. The name was named bailan melon白兰瓜, for its whitish ( ) coloured fruit, and the area Lanzhou ( ).


Description

Annual or sometimes perennial (in wild form), trailing, prostrate or rarely climbing herb.

Stem angular and hirsute, sometimes becoming circular and glabrous.

Leaves ± reniform, 5-angled or shallowly 5-lobed, lobes obtuse, both surfaces covered with soft villous hairs; size variable, 5-15 cm long and as much broad, smaller in wild forms.

Male flowers fasciculate; peduncle 5-3 cm long. Calyx tube villous, 5-8 mm long, sepals subulate. Corolla 1-2 cm long.

Fruit round to slightly oval shape, 15 – 22 cm long. 1.8 – 3.6 kg weight.

Seeds white, oblong and emarginate.




References

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honeydew_(melon)

2. http://www.eol.org/pages/584424



Thursday, March 18, 2010

Thailand : in a glimpse - fruits



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Cocos nucifera
Common name : Coconut, Kelapa (Malay), , ma phrao-มะพร้าว(Thai)
Family : Asteraceae
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Areca catechu
Common name : Betel Nut, 槟榔, Pinang (Malay), mak-หมาก (Thai)
Family : Asteraceae
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Annona muricata
Common name : Soursop, durian belanda (Malay), 红毛榴莲, ทุเรียนเทศ (Thai)
Family : Annonaceae
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Pyrus sp
Common name : Pear, 梨子
Family : Rosaceae
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Manilkara zapota
Common name : Sapodilla, Ciku (Malay), 人心果, lamoot-ละมุด (Thai)
Family : Sapotaceae
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Psidium guajava
Common name : Guava, Jambu batu (Malay), 番石榴, fa rang-ฝรั่ง (Thai)
Family : Myrtaceae
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Syzygium malaccense
Synonyms : Caryophyllus malaccensis, Eugenia malaccensis
Common name : Malay Rose Apple, Jambu Bol (Malay), ชมพู่มะเหมี่ยว (Thai)
Family : Myrtaceae
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Bouea macrophylla
Common name : Kundang (Malay), มะปราง (Thai)
Family : Anacardiaceae
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Mangifera indica Chauk anan
Common name : Mango, Mangga(Malay), 杧果,ma muaang-มะม่วง (Thai)
Family : Anacardiaceae
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Leucaena leucocephala
Common name : Petai Hutan (Malay ), Krathin- กระถิน (Thai)
Family : Fabaceae
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Arachis hypogaea
Common name : Peanut, Kacang Tanah (Malay), 花生,thuaa li sohng- ถั่วลิสง (Thai)
Family : Fabaceae
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Tamarindus indica
Common name : Tamarind, Asam Jawa (Malay), ma khaam- มะขาม (Thai)
Family : Fabaceae
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Hibiscus sabdariffa
Common name : Roselle, 洛神花, krajeab-กระเจี๊ยบ (Thai)
Family : Malavaceae
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Citrullus lanatus
Common name : Watermelon, 西瓜, Tembikai (Malay), taengmo-แตงโม (Thai)
Family : Cucurbitaceae
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Tricosanthes dioca
Common name :  timun potol (Malay)
Family : Cucurbitaceae
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Piper betle
Common name : Betel, 蒌叶, Sireh (Malay), พลู (Thai)
Family : Piperaceae
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Capsicum frutescens
Common name : Thai pepper, 小米椒,Chili Api (Malay), พริกขี้หนู (Thai)
Family : Solanaceae

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??
Common name : orange, som- ส้ม (Thai)
Family : Rutaceae
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Monday, March 15, 2010

Gymnostoma sumatranum - Rhu Bukit


Synonym - Casuarina sumatrana.. .


Its native to tropical Asia, found in Malesia-Sumatra region. In Malaysia, it is known as Rhu Bukit. In Sarawak it is a protected species. It is official tree of Kota Kinabalu City Hall of Sabah.. .


Gymnostoma sumatranumis a family of Casuarinaceae, of order Fagales. Casuarinaceae consist of 3 or 4 genera and approximately 70 species of trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics, Australia and the Pacific Island. At one time, all the species were places in the genus Casuarina, but are now split among Allcasuarina, Casuarina, Ceuthostoma and Gymnostoma.

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Description

A moderately large tree, capable to grow up to 30 meter in heights. Twigs are evergreen, drooping equisetoid. Foliage is of multiple ronded umbrella shaped crowns. The roots have nitrogen fixing nodules that contain the soil actinomycetes Frankia. Stems are angular or tetrahedral in cross section. Female inflorescences are borne terminally . .




Propogation

G. sumatranum is propagated by seeds. Requires a well-drained medium. Germination in 30-90 days.

Propagation by rooting stem shows about 60 – 70 % of success with mature softwood stem cuttings. Rooted cuttings inoculated with Frankia were easily transplanted and established in field conditions with very low (about 3%) mortality. (1). .



Economics

Its widely use as ornamental trees.

Produce superior quality charcoal in Sarawak. Annual commercial production is about 34,000 tons (weight) of firewood and 4,000 tons of charcoal. (3) . .



Reference

1.Goh C.J. et al, A Simple and Efficient Method of Clonal Propagation of Casuarina sumatrana, Plant Growh Regulation 17:115-120, 1995 (http://www.springerlink.com/content/t725m458205j1074/ )
2. Wikipedia ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymnostoma_sumatranum )
3. Innovations in Tropical Reforestation Casuarinas, nitrogen-fixing trees for adverse sites (http://nzdl.sadl.uleth.ca/cgi-bin/library.cgi?e=d-00000-00---off-0hdl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&cl=CL2.18.5&d=HASH010c345e11867f606d9a3478.11)

Casuarina equisetifolia - Rhu Pantai



Synonym : Casuarina litorea

Common names : Casuarina, Australian pine, beach she-oak, beef wood-tree, whistling pine


Etymology


Casuarina is from the Malay word ‘kasuari’, an allusion to the twigs of cassowary bird.

equisetifolia is derived from the Latin ‘equinus’, pertaining to horses, and ‘folium’, a leaf, in reference to the fine, drooping twigs, which are reminiscent of coarse horse hair.

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Natural Habitat & Origin

Sandy coasts of subtropical & tropical ( between 12-31.5°s and 18-22°N ) - Australasia, SE.Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean, possible Madagascar.


Classification

Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Fagales Casuarinaceae

Description
Evergreen tree with capable to grow up to 20 meters in height.
Crown shape initially conical but tends to flatten with age.
Trunk straight, cylindrical, usually branchless for up to 10m, up to 100cm in diameter. Bark reddish brown colour, rough, brittle, peeling.
Branchlets are deciduous, dropping, needlelike, terete but with prominent angular ribs, 23 – 38 cm x 0.5 – 1 mm, greyish-green.
Flowers unisexual, perianth absent. Monoecious. Pollination by wind.

Male flowers in terminal, simple, elongated spike, 7-40mm long, in whorls, single stamen.
Female inflorescence on a short lateral branchlet, cylindrical, cone-shaped or globose.
Infructescence woody, conelike.
Fruit grey or yellow-grown winged nut (samara).
Seed solitary.




Propagation & Cultivation

Propagation by seeds; cutting from branclests, treated with IBA/IAA/NAA; air-layering is practice, but too costly for large scale operation.

Inoculation with pure strains of Frakia prior to transplanting to field.

Planting density of 2,500stem/ha. Harvested at 10th – 15th years.

May plant up to 8,000-10,000 stems/ha for firewood. Harvested at 4th – 5th years. Yield 10 – 20 MT/ha/year.


Economic Importance

Firewood : Calorific value 500kcal/kg. Highly regarded wood, ignites readily even when green. Regarded “the best firewood in the world”.

Charcoal : Calorific value 7000kcal/kg .

Paper : Wood to produce paper pulp using neutral sulphate and semi-chemical process.

Timber : Heavy hardwood. Density 900-100kg/m3. Used as house post, rafters, electtic poles, tool handles, oars, wagon wheels, etc.

Folk medicine : Root extrcts are used for treating dysentry, diarrhea, stomach ache. Twigs are used for treating swelling. Powdered bark is used for treating pimples.

Erosion control : planted along coastlines, estuaries, riverbanks, waterways.

Horticulture : Landscape, bongsai.

Weed : Reported to be an invasive weed in Hawaii, the Bahamas, Florida, Nauru.

Others : Tannin, boat making, wind breaker, living fences, nitrogen-fixing.

Friday, March 12, 2010

National Parks & Reserves in Sarawak

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There are 18 National Parks in Sarawak, of which I had only visited 5 of them. Not yet even to include another 5 Nature Reserves and 4 Wildlife Sactuaries. I think I may not have the chance to at least pay a brief visit to all of the existing Totally Protected Areas.

Compare to other states of the Federation, Sarawak surely championed other states in regard to total land area and numbers of TPAs.

However, if we look at total area of Sarawak, which is 124,450 km2 ( 12,445,000 ha ), total TPAs of 492,973.47 ha is merely a 3.96% !
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Area (ha)
%
Total National Parks
299,793.00
2.4089%
Total Wildlife Sactuaries
945.07
0.0076%
Total Reserves
192,235.40
1.5447%
Total TPAs
492,973.47
3.9612%
Total State Area
12,445,000.00




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NATIONAL PARKS
No
Name
Area (ha)
Division
Date of Gazettement
1
2,727 ha
Kuching
4-May-57
2
Gunong Mulu NP
52,865 ha
Miri
3-Oct-74
3
3,138 ha
Miri
2-Jan-75
4
6,949 ha
Miri
26-Jun-75
5
7,064 ha
Bintulu
20-Apr-78
1,932 ha
2-Jun-00
6
4,196 ha
Kuching
3-May-88
7
2,230 ha
Kuching
11-May-89
8
24,040 ha
Sri Aman
11-May-89
9
10,736 ha
Miri
29-Aug-91
10
1,379 ha
Kuching
19-May-94
11
0 ha(19,414 – water bodies)
Kuching
4-Nov-99
12
Bukit Tiban NP
8,000 ha
Bintulu
31-May-00
13
Maludam NP
43,147 ha
Sri Aman
31-May-00
14
Rajang Mangrove NP
9,373 ha
Sibu
3-Aug-00
15
Gunung Buda NP
6,235 ha
Limbang
18-Jan-01
16
Kuching Wetland NP
6,610 ha
Kuching
10-Oct-02
17
Pulong Tau NP
59,817ha
Limbang, Miri
24-Mar-05
18
Usun Apau NP
49,355ha
Miri
29-Sep-05
TOTAL
299,793 ha

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NATURE RESERVES
No.
Name
Area (ha)
Division
Date of publication
1
6.16 ha
Kuching
4-Nov-99
2
Sama Jaya Nature Reserved
37.916 ha
Kuching
23-Mar-00
3
653 ha
Kuching
20-Apr-00
4
Bukit Hitam Nature Reserve
147 ha
Limbang
22-Jun-00
5
Bukit Sembiling Nature Reserve
101 ha
Limbang
22-Jun-00
TOTAL
945.07 ha

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WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES

No.
Name
Area (ha)
Division
Date of Publication
Effective Date
1
Samunsam Wildlife Sanc.
6,092 ha
Kuching
22-Mar-79
1-Jul-78
Samunsam 1st Extension
16,706 ha
3-Aug-00
29-May-00
2
Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary
168,758 ha
Sarikei, Sibu, Kapit
3-Mar-83
2-Feb-83
3
Pulau Tukong Ara Tukong Sanctuary
1.4 ha
Kuching
29-Aug-85
28-Feb-85
4
Sibuti Bird Sanctuary
678 ha
Miri
3-Aug-00
29-May-00
TOTAL
192,235.40