Ongzi, a zeal HORTICULTURIST,yet resides in a plant-free apartment…… thinks that plants deserved to be treated as LIVING THING, not merely as plants …… strongly condemns any form of CRUELTY TO PLANTS, yet enjoys feast on them…… collects only e-HERBARIUM, and proudly encourages others to do the same……
Solanum aethiopicum was domesticated from the wild Solanum anguivi Lam., via the semi-domesticated Solanum distichum Schumach. &
Thonn. Both these ancestral species
occure through tropical Africa, S. anguivi in disturbed vegetation and S. distichum in gardens. S.
aethiopicum is grown throughout tropical Africa and South America and
occasionally southernmost France and Italy and in Southeast Asia.
Solanum aethiopicum is strictly a tropical crop species, and is intolerant of
low cold temperatures and frost or extremely wet conditions. It is intolerant of water-logging and some
tolerance of irrigation-induced salinity.
Members of the Gilo Group grow
best in full sun in woodland savanna on fairly deep and well-drained soils with
pH 5.5-6.8, and day temperatures of 25-35°C and night temperature of 20-27°C.
The Kumba Group tolerates hotter
conditions ( up to 45°C day
temperature ) with air humidity as low as 20%, especially if irrigated.
The Shum Group prefers warm, humid
conditions and will shed its leaves when it gets dry.
Edible Plant Parts and Uses
In the humid tropical zone of West
Africa, S. aethiopicum is mainly
cultivated for its immature fruit ( garden egg ), in the savanna area for its
leaves and immature fruits ( djakattou ), and in East Africa mainly for its
leaves ( nakati ).
In Africa, the immature fruit are
used as cooked vegetable in stews, and sometimes eaten raw. The leaves and shoots are used as a cooked
vegetable. The fruit are sour with a
In Sarawak, the fruit is prepared
in many ways. It is cooked with fish,
made into kerabu, or cooked in coconut milk.
Perennial or annual deciduous
shrub, up to 2m tall, often much branched;
Root system extending both
vertically and laterally;
Branches and leaves with or
without prickles and stellate hairs;
Leaves alternate, simple; stipules
absent; petiole up to 11cm long; blade broadly ovate, 6-30cm x 4-20cm, obtuse
or cordate at base, acute to obtuse at apex, slightly to deeply lobed at
margin, pinnately veined; upper leaves smaller, narrower, less lobed and often
Inflorescence a lateral, racemose
cyme, 5-12 flowered ; penducle often short or even absent;
Flowers bisexual, regular, 4-10
merous ; pedicel 2-15mm long; calyx campanulate, lobes 4-10mm long; corolla
stellate, free not fusd, 6-15mm long, white, sometimes pale purple; stamens
inserted near the bae of the corolla tube and alternate with corolla lobes,
filaments short and thick, anthers connivent, yellow, opening terminal pores;
ovary superior, 2-6-celled, style as long as or slightly longer than stamens,
stigma small, obtuse;
Fruit a globose to oblate, 5-15cm
across, ellipsoid, ovoid or fusiform berry 2-12cm long, smooth to furrowed,
immature green or white turning to red or orange, many seeded;
Seeds lenticular to reniform,
flattened, 2-5mm across, pale brown or yellow.
An amphibious excavator is
specifically designed to maneuvers in marshy, swampy and soft terrain. It can
also float on water like a boat and work on rivers, ponds and lakes. Thus ideal for swap land clearing, river
deepening, pond desilting, etc.
Amphibious excavator is specially
designed with :
1. super long
boom for maximum reach.
pontoons with isolated water-tight compartments sealed with individual service manhole.
extendable pontoons to allow each pontoon to retract or extend outward hydraulically.
Nevertheless, its components are
commonly available off the shelf from most excavator manufactures, i.e. Carterpillar,
Hitachi, Komatsu, Kobelco, Mitsubishi etc.
spray an open space or a drain, a bigger nozzle is required. Brass nozzle for garden hose seems to be the
the nozzle is fitted into a rubber hose, of which is fitted into a 20mm
polypipe. The polypipe is finally fitted
into a 30mm reinforced PVC pipe. To hold the pipes together, a rubber strip
from used tube is used to strapped the hose combination.
Rain tree is Albizia saman, more fondly known as its obsolete name Samanae saman, a tree originated from
the Neotropics, range from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. However, it is widely introduced to South and
SE Asia, as well as the Pacific Islands.
The generic name Albizia is to honor an Italian nobleman
Filippo degli Albizzi, who introduced Albizia
julibrissin to the Europe in the mid-18th century. The specific name saman is from the Spanish word originated from South American
aboriginal name zamang.
The name ‘rain tree’ was coined in
India, due to the possible excreta of cicada inhabiting the trees. It Hawaii, its known as ‘monkeypod’. Its common name varies in different regions
and different languages.
Albizia saman F.Muell. was known as by numerous synonyms :
·Acacia propinqua A.Rich.
·Albizzia saman (Jacq.) Merr. (orth.var)
·Calliandra saman (Jacq.) Griseb.
·Enterolobium saman (Jacq.) Prain
·Feuilleea saman (Jacq.) Kuntze
·Inga salutaris Kunth
·Mimosa pubifera Poir.
·Pithecellobium cinereum Benth.
·Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
·Pithecellobium saman var. saman
·Pithecolobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
·Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
Albizia saman is a wide canopied tree with a large symmetrical crown of up to 20m
in diameter. It can reach a height of
25m and trunk diameter of 40cm. The bark is gray, rough, thick, furrowed. Its leaves are alternate, bipinnate with
diamond-shaped leaflets. Flowers are in
clusters, pink to yellow, depending on its lineage. Seed pods are long, 10-20cm long. Seeds oblong, reddish brown.
The large crown provides a nice
canopy, thus often planted in parks. It can
also planted in row along road shoulders.
Yet, the large branches tend to break off. The vast root system also often found
damaging roads, drains, pedestrian walkway and buildings.
Johan Setia and Kg Jalan Kebun are
2 Malay kampungs south of Klang. The main economic activity is still
non-other-than agriculture. Almost every
household plants something at their backyard.
There are some smallholders planting oilpalm, pineapple, vegetables, fruit
trees and other cash crops.
Banana are widely planted as cash
crops. A wide variety of banana can be
found in makeshift stall along Jalan Johan Setia and Jalan Kebun selling
the fruit of Phyllanthus acidus, also
known as Malay gooseberry, is an exotic local fruit of the tropical Asia.
A cermai tree
can grow up to 10 meter in height. The leaves
are ovate, alternates, light green in colour. The flowers can be male, female or hermaphrodite,
small and pinkish in clusters on the branches. The fruits are pale yellow, waxy, crisp and
juicy, with 4 – 6 seeds.
cultivated mainly for its fruit, which is very sour, thus seldom consumed
fresh.The cermai fruit is mostly used
in cooking, pickled in salt, sweetened and made into syrup. It is also consumed raw mixed in rojak buah, or pounded with sambal belacan and eaten with rice. The young leaves can also be eaten as greens