Saturday, October 4, 2014

Tree Measurement

Sunday, August 10, 2014

Solanum aethiopicum - Terung Iban

 Scientific name :
Solanum aethiopicum L.

Synonyms :
Lycopersicon aethipicum (L.) Mill.
Pseudocapsicum torulosum Moench
Solanum aethopicum Jacq.
Solanum aethiopicum var aculeatum Bunal
Soalnum aethiopicum var giorgii (DeWild.) Bitter
Solanum aethiopicum var inerme Dunal
Solanum aethiopicum var integrifolium (Poir.) O.E. Schulz
Solanum aethiopicum var modicelobatum Bitter
Solanum aethiopicum var paaschenianum (H.J.P.Winckl.) Bitter
Solanum ambrosiacum Vell.
Solanum aurantiacum Sendtri.
Solanum brieyi DeWild.
Solanum geminifolium Thonn.
Solanum gilo Raddi
Solanum gilo var ellipsoidum Bitter
Solanum gilo var erectifrutcum Bitter
Solanum gilo var pierreanum (Pailleux & Bois) Bitter
Solanum gilo var sparseaculeatum Bitter
Solanum gilo subsp megalacanthum Bitter
Solanum gilo subsp monteiroi (C.H.Wright) Bitter
Solanum giorgii DeWild.
Solanum elskensii DeWild.
Solanum hybridum Jacq.
Solanum indicum subsp ambifarium Bitter
Solanum interifolium Poir.
Solanum kupperi Markgr.
Solanum lobelii Ten.
Solanum lusitanicum Dunal
Solanum monteiroi C.H.Wright
Solanum naumannii Engl.
Solanum obtusifolium Willd.
Solanum olivare Pailleux & Bois
Solanum ovatifolium DeWild.
Solanum paaschenianum H.J.P. winkl.
Solanum pierreanum Paill. & Bois
Solanum poggei Dammer
Solanum pseudomelongena Ten.
Solanum racemiflorum Dunal
Solanum scabrum Jacq.
Solanum scabrum Zuccagni nom. illeg., nom. superfl.
Solanum schroideri Dammer
Solanum sparsespinosum DeWild.
Solanum subsessile DeWild.
Solanum sudanense Hammerst.
Solanum texanum Dunal
Solanum undatum var violaceum Dunal
Solanum willdenowii Roem. & Schult. nom. illeg., nom. superfl.
Solanum worsleyi W.Watson
Solanum zuccagnianum Dunal nom. illeg., nom. superfl.
Solanum zuccagnianum var allogonum Dunal

Common / Vernacular Names
African Bitter Pea-Aubergine
African Eggplant
Bitter Tomato
Chinese Scarlet Eggplant
Dayak Eggplant
Dyahatu (Senegal)
Ethiopian Eggplant
Ekitulatula (Uganda)
Garden Egg
Jamaican Bitter Balls
Mock Tomato
Ngbagu (Congo)
Osun (Nigeria)
Sasa (Central Africa)
Sarawak Wild Eggplant
Scarlet Eggplant
Terung Asam
Terung Dayak
Terung Iban
Terung Sarawak
Tomato-Fruit Eggplant
Tungo (Angola)
Wild Pea-Aubergine
Wild African Aubergine

Origin / Distribution
Solanum aethiopicum was domesticated from the wild Solanum anguivi Lam., via the semi-domesticated Solanum distichum Schumach. & Thonn.  Both these ancestral species occure through tropical Africa,  S. anguivi in disturbed vegetation and S. distichum in gardens.  S. aethiopicum is grown throughout tropical Africa and South America and occasionally southernmost France and Italy and in Southeast Asia.

Solanum aethiopicum is strictly a tropical crop species, and is intolerant of low cold temperatures and frost or extremely wet conditions.  It is intolerant of water-logging and some tolerance of irrigation-induced salinity. 

Members of the Gilo Group grow best in full sun in woodland savanna on fairly deep and well-drained soils with pH 5.5-6.8, and day temperatures of 25-35°C and night temperature of 20-27°C. 

The Kumba Group tolerates hotter conditions ( up to 45°C day temperature ) with air humidity as low as 20%, especially if irrigated.

The Shum Group prefers warm, humid conditions and will shed its leaves when it gets dry.

Edible Plant Parts and Uses
In the humid tropical zone of West Africa, S. aethiopicum is mainly cultivated for its immature fruit ( garden egg ), in the savanna area for its leaves and immature fruits ( djakattou ), and in East Africa mainly for its leaves ( nakati ).

In Africa, the immature fruit are used as cooked vegetable in stews, and sometimes eaten raw.  The leaves and shoots are used as a cooked vegetable.  The fruit are sour with a pleasant aroma. 

In Sarawak, the fruit is prepared in many ways.  It is cooked with fish, made into kerabu, or cooked in coconut milk. 

Perennial or annual deciduous shrub, up to 2m tall, often much branched;

Root system extending both vertically and laterally;

Branches and leaves with or without prickles and stellate hairs;

Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent; petiole up to 11cm long; blade broadly ovate, 6-30cm x 4-20cm, obtuse or cordate at base, acute to obtuse at apex, slightly to deeply lobed at margin, pinnately veined; upper leaves smaller, narrower, less lobed and often subopposite;

Inflorescence a lateral, racemose cyme, 5-12 flowered ; penducle often short or even absent;

Flowers bisexual, regular, 4-10 merous ; pedicel 2-15mm long; calyx campanulate, lobes 4-10mm long; corolla stellate, free not fusd, 6-15mm long, white, sometimes pale purple; stamens inserted near the bae of the corolla tube and alternate with corolla lobes, filaments short and thick, anthers connivent, yellow, opening terminal pores; ovary superior, 2-6-celled, style as long as or slightly longer than stamens, stigma small, obtuse;

Fruit a globose to oblate, 5-15cm across, ellipsoid, ovoid or fusiform berry 2-12cm long, smooth to furrowed, immature green or white turning to red or orange, many seeded;

Seeds lenticular to reniform, flattened, 2-5mm across, pale brown or yellow.

Source : T.K.Lim, Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants : Volume 6, Fruits, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-5628-1_36, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, 2013

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Edible Ferns of Sarawak

paku midin
( Stenochlaena palustris Blechanales )

paku ikan / pucuk paku 
( Diaplazium esculentum Athyriaceae )

paku pahit / paku rusa  
( Diaplazium sorzogoneseAthyriaceae ) 

 paku kubuk / paku uban 
( Neophrolepis acutifolia Lomariopsidaceae )

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Amphibious Excavator

An amphibious excavator is specifically designed to maneuvers in marshy, swampy and soft terrain.   It can also float on water like a boat and work on rivers, ponds and lakes.   Thus ideal for swap land clearing, river deepening, pond desilting, etc.

Amphibious excavator is specially designed with :
1. super long boom for maximum reach.
2. floatables pontoons with isolated water-tight compartments sealed with individual service manhole.
3. optional extendable pontoons to allow each pontoon to retract or extend outward hydraulically.

Nevertheless, its components are commonly available off the shelf from most excavator manufactures, i.e. Carterpillar, Hitachi, Komatsu, Kobelco, Mitsubishi etc.  

Saturday, May 17, 2014

Brass Nozzle Sprayer

To blanket spray an open space or a drain, a bigger nozzle is required.  Brass nozzle for garden hose seems to be the best candidate.   

First, the nozzle is fitted into a rubber hose, of which is fitted into a 20mm polypipe.  The polypipe is finally fitted into a 30mm reinforced PVC pipe.   To hold the pipes together, a rubber strip from used tube is used to strapped the hose combination.

Albizia saman - Rain Tree

Rain tree is Albizia saman, more fondly known as its obsolete name Samanae saman, a tree originated from the Neotropics, range from Mexico to Peru and Brazil.  However, it is widely introduced to South and SE Asia, as well as the Pacific Islands.

The generic name Albizia is to honor an Italian nobleman Filippo degli Albizzi, who introduced Albizia julibrissin to the Europe in the mid-18th century.  The specific name saman is from the Spanish word originated from South American aboriginal name zamang.

The name ‘rain tree’ was coined in India, due to the possible excreta of cicada inhabiting the trees.    It Hawaii, its known as ‘monkeypod’.   Its common name varies in different regions and different languages.

Albizia saman F.Muell. was known as by numerous synonyms :
·Acacia propinqua A.Rich.
·Albizzia saman (Jacq.) Merr. (orth.var)
·Calliandra saman (Jacq.) Griseb.
·Enterolobium saman (Jacq.) Prain
·Feuilleea saman (Jacq.) Kuntze
·Inga cinerea Willd.
·Inga salutaris Kunth
·Inga saman (Jacq.) Willd.
·Mimosa pubifera Poir.
·Mimosa saman Jacq.
·Pithecellobium cinereum Benth.
·Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
·Pithecellobium saman var. saman (Jacq.) Benth.
·Pithecolobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.
·Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.
·Zygia saman (Jacq.) A.Lyons

Albizia saman is a wide canopied tree with a large symmetrical crown of up to 20m in diameter.  It can reach a height of 25m and trunk diameter of 40cm. The bark is gray, rough, thick, furrowed.  Its leaves are alternate, bipinnate with diamond-shaped leaflets.  Flowers are in clusters, pink to yellow, depending on its lineage.   Seed pods are long, 10-20cm long.  Seeds oblong, reddish brown.

The large crown provides a nice canopy, thus often planted in parks.  It can also planted in row along road shoulders.  Yet, the large branches tend to break off.  The vast root system also often found damaging roads, drains, pedestrian walkway and buildings.

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Bananas of Johan Setia & Kg Jalan Kebun

Johan Setia and Kg Jalan Kebun are 2 Malay kampungs south of Klang.  The main economic activity is still non-other-than agriculture.  Almost every household plants something at their backyard.  There are some smallholders planting oilpalm, pineapple, vegetables, fruit trees and other cash crops.

Banana are widely planted as cash crops.  A wide variety of banana can be found in makeshift stall along Jalan Johan Setia and Jalan Kebun selling fruits.