Thursday, 8 October 2009

Types of Fruits ( Botanical )

1. Simple fruit, fleshy ( develop from a simple or compound ovary with only one pistil ) :

· Berry
- develop from a single ovary, ovary ripens into edible pericarp.
- eg. Avocado, Barberry, Buah, Melaka, Current, Chili, Ciku, Eggplant, Elderberry, Gooseberry, Grape, Guava, Honeysuckle, Kiwi, Mayapple, Nannyberry, Oregon-grape, Pomegranate, Tomato, Sea-bcukthorn, Starfruit

- modified berry
- eg. Orange, Kumquat, Lemon

- modified berry
- eg. all Cucurbitaceae ( Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash, Watermelon ), Passiflora, Carica

· Epigynous / False Berry
- an accessory fruit, developed from flowers with inferior ovary. some or all of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue.
- eg. Banana, Blueberry, Cranberry

· Drupe
- develop from a single carpel, mostly from flowers with superior ovaries ; endocarp with seed inside, surrounded by fleshy mesocarp and endocarp
- eg. Coffee, Jujube, Longan, Lychee, Mango, Olive, most Palms ( Date, Oil Palm ), Pistachio, Rambutan, all Prunus ( Almond, Apricot, Cherry, Damson, Nectarine, Peach, Plum )

· Pome
- An accessory fruit developed from one or more carpels, surrounded by accessory tissue
- all Maloideae of Rosaceae ( Apple ), Pear 

2. Simple fruit, dry
a. Dehiscent
- developed from two or more carpels
- eg. Brazil nut, Cotton, Durian, Lily, Orchid, Poppy.

- developed from 1 carpel; many-seeded dry unilocular fruit
- eg. Larkspur, Magnolia, Banksia, Peony, Milkweed

- developed from a simple carpel ; fruits usually called a pod
- eg. Alfalfa, Clover, Peas, Beans, Lentils, Lupins, Mequited, Carob, Soy, Peanuts

- eg. member of genus Desmodium and Hedysarum of Fabaceae

- developed from multiple carpels
- eg. members of Geranium

b. Indehiscent
- developed from a single carpel, contain a single seed that nearly fills the pericarp, but does not adhere to it.
- Eg. Buttercup, Buckwheat, Dandelion, Sunflower
- developed from a single carpel, resembles an achene, except that in caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat
- eg. Corn, Rice, Wheat

Dry drupe
- sometime fibrous
- eg. Coconut

- developed from pistils with inferior ovaries ; ovary wall becomes very hard at maturity, seed remains unattached with the ovary wall.
- eg. members of family Fagales ( Chestnust, Hazel )

- winged achne
- eg. Maple

- developed from multiple carpels
- eg. Carrot, member of genus Abutilon, Malva, Malvastrum, Sida

- fruits of 2 fused carpels that separated when ripe
- eg. many members of Brassicaceae family

3. Compound - Aggregate fruit
- aggregates of small, individual fruits, each fruitlets develop from a single flower with multiple carpels
- aggregate of achenes, eg. Strawberry
- aggregate of drupes, eg. Blackberry, Raspberry
- aggregate of samaras, eg. Tuliptree
- aggregate of capsules, eg. Sweet gum
- aggregate of follicles, eg. Magnolia

4. Compound - Multiple fruit
- aggregates of small, individual drupes. Each drupelets develop from a different flower, from a cluster of flowers
- eg. CempedakFig, Jakefruit ( Nangka ), Mulberries, Pineapple, ¿ Soursop, ¿ Nona, Noni