Monday, December 21, 2009

Jasminum sambac - Melur 茉莉花


Jasminum sambac, is a shrubby flower native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, of the Oleaceae ( olive ) family. The name Jasmine derived from the Persian yasmin, of which means 'gift from god'. The botanic name sambac is derived from a misapplication of the Sanskrit name champaca, which refers to the fragrant flowered shrub Michelia champaca.

The Jasminum family consists of some 200 species, loosely known as jasmines. It is also known as jasmin ( Portugal ), jasmine ( France ), pikake / pikaki ( Hawaii ). mallipu ( Tamil ), mogra ( Hindi ), sanoagyuta ( Tagalog ) , mallika ( Sanskrit ), melati ( Indonesia, Malaysia ), melur ( Malaysia ), and 茉莉花 ( China ). 

Cultivated species includes J. abyssinicum ( forest jasmine ), J. adenophyllum ( pinwheel jasmine ), J. cichotomum ( Gold Coast jasmine ), J. grandiflorum ( Spanish jasmine ), J. humile ( Italian yellow jasmine ), J. mesnvi ( Japanese jasmine ), J. odoratissimum ( yellow jasmine ), J. officinale ( common jasmine ) J. parkeri ( dwart jasmine ) and J. polyantum.

Jasminum sambac ( Arabian jasmine ) is among the most popularly cultivated jasmine flower. It is native to southwestern and southern Asia. Cultivated as an ornamental plant for its strongly scented flowers, it is an evegreen shrub, capable to reach 3m in height. The leaves are simple, opposite, ovate, 4 - 12.5cm long and 2 - 7.5cm broad. The fowers are white, strongly scented, in clusters of 3 - 12, corolla 2 - 3m diameter with 5 - 9 lobes. The flowers open at night and close in the morning. The fruit is a purple-black berry, 1 cm in diameter.

In China, J. sambac is consumed as jasmine-flower tea ( 茉莉花茶 ). The flowers also mixed with green tea to make jasmine tea ( 香片 ).

In the Philippines and Indonesia, the J. sambac was adopted as their national flower.

In many countries, including, Hawaii, the Philippines, and India, the J. sambac flower is made into leis, corsages, crowns for welcoming guests, and as garlands on women’s hair.

The Hindus and Buddhist often use the flower as an offering to their deities.

Even though jasmine is loosely refers to the flowers of Jasminum genus, it also refers to other genus of scented flowers :
Trachelospermon jasmioides - Star Jasmin 络石 – ( Apocynaceae )
Gardenia jasminoides - Cape Jasmin 梔子 – ( Rubiaceae )
Gelsemium sempervirens - Carolina Jasmine – ( Gelsemiaceae )
Millingtonia hortensis - Tree Jasmine – ( Bignoniaceae )
Nyctanthes arbo-tristis - Night-flowering Jasmin – ( Lamiaceae )
Cestrum nocturnum - Night-blooming Jasmin 夜來香  - ( Solanaceae )

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Florals @ Cameron Highlands 2


爱情果is the name the local Cameronians call it, translated to ‘love fruit’ in English. It is so called due to its mixed taste of sweet, sour and bitter … the taste of LOVE.
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It is originated from South America, where it is called tomate de árbol, literally means tree tomato. The name tamarillo was adopted in New Zealand to distinguish it from ordinary tomato, and soon it has become the standard commercial designation for the fruit.
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Tamarillo, Solanum betaceum, is a family of the Solanaceae family. It is also called Cyphomandra betacea.
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The fruit is egg-shaped berry, about 4’’ length and 2’’ width. Fruit colour varies from purple, red, orange to yellow. The tree can grow up to 6 meter in height.











Zucchini or courgette is a small summer squash. Along with some other squashes, it belongs to the species Cucurbita pepo. Zucchini is the more common name in North America, Australia, Germany and Italy; while courgette is more commonly used in Britain, New Zealand, Ireland, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and South Africa.
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‘Zucca’ is the Italian word for squash, and ‘zucchina’ is its diminutive, become ‘zucchine’ in the plural. However, ‘zucchino’, the masculine form, become ‘ zucchini’ in the plural.
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‘Courgette’ is from the French word for squash. It is a diminutive of ‘courge’
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Zucchini can be yellow, green or light green, and generally have a similar shape of a ridged cucumber, though a few cultivars are available that produce round or bottle-shaped fruit.
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In culinary context, zucchini is a vegetable, which means it is usually cooked and presented as a savory dish or accompaniment. Botanically, it is an immature fruit, being the swollen ovary of female zucchini flower.

Florals @ Cameron Highlands


Garden strawberry, a species of Fragaria, belongs to the family Rosaceae. There are more than 20 described Fragaria species and many hybrids and cultivars.
The garden strawberry was first bred in Brittany, France in 1740 via a cross of Fragaria virginiana from eastern North America, which was noted for its favor, and Fragaria chiloensis from Chilie and Argentina brought by Amédée-François Frézier, which was noted for its large size.
Cultivars of Fragaria x ananassa have replaced, in commercial production, the woodland strawberry ( Fragaria vesca ), which was the first strawberry species cultivated in the early 17th century.
Technically, it is an accessory fruit : that is, the fleshy part is derived not from the ovaries, but of the hypanthium. So, the seeds are the actual fruits of the plant, and the flesh of the strawberry is modified receptacle tissue.






Persimmon is from the genus Diospyros of the Ebenaceae family. There are several species of edible persimmons :

Diospyros digyna – black persimmon / black sapote –native to Mexico. Its fruit has green skin and white flesh, which turns black when ripe

Diospyros discolour – Mabolo / velvet apple – native to the Phillipines. It is bright red when ripe

Diospyros kaki – Japanese persimmon 柿子- originated from China, it is the most widely cultivated species. It is edible in its crisp firm state, but has its best flavor when allowed to soften

Diospyros lotus – date plum – Native to southwest Asia and southeast Europe, it was know to the ancient Greeks as ‘the fruit of the gods’

Diospyros virginiana – American persimmon - Native to eastern United States.

Sweet corn, ( Zea mays ) also know as maize , or corn, originated from American continent. RM10 for 8 ears, the corn are sweet. even eaten raw. It is also best consumed after steamed, boiled or grilled.

Sweet corn is the result of a naturally-occurring recessive mutation in the genes which control conversion of sugar to starch inside the endosperm of the corn kernel.

The fruit of sweet corn is the corn kernel, a type of caryopsis. The ear is a collection of kernels on the cob.


Chayote 佛手瓜( Sechium edule ), is an edible plant that belongs to the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.

Chayote was first domesticated in Mexico, where the fruit is used in both raw and cooked forms. When cooked, it is similiar to summer squash. Raw chayote can be added to salads or salsas, and it is often marinated with lemon or lime juice.


In Taiwan, chayotes are widely planted for their shoots, known as 龍鬚菜, literally means dragon-whisker-vegetable.

Daylily is the common name of Hemerocallis, a member of Hemorocallidaceae famliy, originated from Europe and east Asia.
Hemerocallis are perennial. The flower of most species open at sunrise and wither at sunset, yet some are night-blooming.

The flowers of some species are edible and are use in Chinese cuisine. They are sold fresh or dired in Asian market as 'golden needles' ( 金针).



Hoya is a genus of 200 - 300 species of tropical climbing palnts in the family Apocynaceae, native to southern Asia, Australia and Polynesia. This genus was named by botanist Robert Brown, in honour of his friend, Thomos Hoy.

Hoyas grow well indoor, preferring brigt but not direct sunlight, but will tolerate fairly low light levels at the expense of rapid growth and blooming.




Anthurium, is a large genus of about 600 - 800 species, belonging to the arum family ( Araceae ). The species has neotropical distribution : mostly in wet tropical mountain forest of Central America and South America, but not found in Asia.







Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ) are annual plants native to the Americas, from the family Asteraceae ( formerlly Compositae ). What is usually called the flower is actually a head of numerous florets drowded together. The outer florets are the sterile ray florets, while the inner florets, called disc florets will mature into what are traditionally called sunflower seeds,but are actually the fruit ( an achene ) of the plant.

The florets are arranged in a sprial pattern where the number of left spiral and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. Typically each floret is oriented toward the next by approximately the golden angle, 137.5°. Typically, there are 34 spirals in one direction and 55 in the other ; on a very large sunflower there could be 89 in one directionand 144 in the other. This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds within the flower head.

Pinch the Poinsettia - My Final Year Project

Effect of Number and Timing of Pinching on Reproductive Growth of Potted Poinsettia
Thohirah Lee Abdullah & Ong Jyh Seng
Department of Crop Science
Faculty of Agriculture
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM Serdang
Selangor


Poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima is a very lovely plant due to its red and attractive bract colours. It is the most popular decorative plant for Christmas and New Year. Poinsettias have a good market potential as potted flowering plants.

Poor plant quality may result from crowding, poor light, pest and disease problem, and poor scheduling. Scheduling poinsettia is complicated by the interaction of daylength, temperature and cultivar on lateral growth and floral development ( Larson & Langhans, 1963 ).

The removal of shoot apexes to overcome apical dominance and to promote lateral shoot development is referred to as pinching ( Larson 1985 ). In areas with good light, much more latitude may be allowed in time and type of pinching. Suggested pinch dates for Christmas crops vary somewhat with the area from which the information comes ( Pertuit, 1973 ; Tayama et al, 1975 ; Tayama 1978 ).

Pinched potted plants are more floriferous and shorter than single stem plants. Timing a pinch can also affect plant quality. Pinching too early can result in plants that are too tall, and pinching too late can reslut in plants too short. Therefore, pinching, as part of the poinsettia production cultural practices, is done to overcome the apical dominance in order to produce a better quality plant.


Source : Pertanika J.Trop. Agric. Sci. 26(1):15-18(2003)

http://psasir.upm.edu.my/3437/

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Canarium odontophyllum - Dabai



Dabai, Canarium odontophyllum, of family Burseraceae is a seasonal fruit found in Sarawak markets, especially towards the end of the year. Dabai is indigenous to Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan.



The dabai tree can grow up to 21 meters in height, upright growing with large, pinnate leaves. Dabai trees are dioecious with separate male and female trees. They are very heavy bearers and yields of up to 800kg per tree have been recorded. A planting distance of 9 meters is recommended.


Dabai fruits are white colour when immature, turning purple-black when ripe. The fruit stand out as being very nutritious for their high energy ( 149-339 kcal/100g edible portion ), protein ( 2.6 - 3.8% ) and potassium ( 362 – 810 mg/100g edible portion ). The edible portion is the unctuous mesocarp about 6 -8 mm thick that surrounds the hard 3 angular seed.

Thursday, October 8, 2009

Types of Fruits ( Botanical )

1. Simple fruit, fleshy ( develop from a simple or compound ovary with only one pistil ) :

· Berry
- develop from a single ovary, ovary ripens into edible pericarp.
- eg. Avocado, Barberry, Buah, Melaka, Current, Chili, Ciku, Eggplant, Elderberry, Gooseberry, Grape, Guava, Honeysuckle, Kiwi, Mayapple, Nannyberry, Oregon-grape, Pomegranate, Tomato, Sea-bcukthorn, Starfruit

Hesperidium
- modified berry
- eg. Orange, Kumquat, Lemon

Pepo
- modified berry
- eg. all Cucurbitaceae ( Cucumber, Pumpkin, Squash, Watermelon ), Passiflora, Carica

· Epigynous / False Berry
- an accessory fruit, developed from flowers with inferior ovary. some or all of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue.
- eg. Banana, Blueberry, Cranberry

· Drupe
- develop from a single carpel, mostly from flowers with superior ovaries ; endocarp with seed inside, surrounded by fleshy mesocarp and endocarp
- eg. Coffee, Jujube, Longan, Lychee, Mango, Olive, most Palms ( Date, Oil Palm ), Pistachio, Rambutan, all Prunus ( Almond, Apricot, Cherry, Damson, Nectarine, Peach, Plum )

· Pome
- An accessory fruit developed from one or more carpels, surrounded by accessory tissue
- all Maloideae of Rosaceae ( Apple ), Pear 


2. Simple fruit, dry
a. Dehiscent
Capsule
- developed from two or more carpels
- eg. Brazil nut, Cotton, Durian, Lily, Orchid, Poppy.

Follicle
- developed from 1 carpel; many-seeded dry unilocular fruit
- eg. Larkspur, Magnolia, Banksia, Peony, Milkweed

Legume
- developed from a simple carpel ; fruits usually called a pod
- eg. Alfalfa, Clover, Peas, Beans, Lentils, Lupins, Mequited, Carob, Soy, Peanuts

Loment
- eg. member of genus Desmodium and Hedysarum of Fabaceae

Schizocarp
- developed from multiple carpels
- eg. members of Geranium

b. Indehiscent
Achne
- developed from a single carpel, contain a single seed that nearly fills the pericarp, but does not adhere to it.
- Eg. Buttercup, Buckwheat, Dandelion, Sunflower
Caryopsis
- developed from a single carpel, resembles an achene, except that in caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat
- eg. Corn, Rice, Wheat

Dry drupe
- sometime fibrous
- eg. Coconut

Nut
- developed from pistils with inferior ovaries ; ovary wall becomes very hard at maturity, seed remains unattached with the ovary wall.
- eg. members of family Fagales ( Chestnust, Hazel )

Samara
- winged achne
- eg. Maple

Shizocarp
- developed from multiple carpels
- eg. Carrot, member of genus Abutilon, Malva, Malvastrum, Sida

Silique
- fruits of 2 fused carpels that separated when ripe
- eg. many members of Brassicaceae family


3. Compound - Aggregate fruit
- aggregates of small, individual fruits, each fruitlets develop from a single flower with multiple carpels
- aggregate of achenes, eg. Strawberry
- aggregate of drupes, eg. Blackberry, Raspberry
- aggregate of samaras, eg. Tuliptree
- aggregate of capsules, eg. Sweet gum
- aggregate of follicles, eg. Magnolia

4. Compound - Multiple fruit
- aggregates of small, individual drupes. Each drupelets develop from a different flower, from a cluster of flowers
- eg. CempedakFig, Jakefruit ( Nangka ), Mulberries, Pineapple, ¿ Soursop, ¿ Nona, Noni

Saturday, August 1, 2009

Plant Propagation - Asexual

1. Cuttings / Striking ( Keratan )


1a. stem cuttings


1b. leaf cuttings


1c. root cuttings


2. Layering ( Tut )


2a. air layering / marcotting



2b. ground layering


3. Grafting ( Cantuman )


3a. approach ( cantuman sandingan )


3b. budding ( cantuman mata tunas )

3C. cleft ( cantuman belahan baji )

4. Storage organs

4a. Bulbs ( underground vertical shoots that has modified leaes )

- Onion, Garlic, Lily, memebers of the Alliaceae & Liliaceae family, etc

4b. Corms ( short, vertical, swollen underground stem )

- Arrowhead, Asparagus and other members of the Asparagales family, Banana and allies, Crocus, Water chestnut, Yam, members of the Araceae family, etc

4c. Tubers ( thickend part of a rhizome or stolon )

- Cassava, Potato

4d. Rhizomes ( creeping, horizontal, underground main stem )

- Ginger

4e. Stolons / Rnners ( surface/under-ground-surface stem, sprouts from an existing stem, has long internodes, generates new shoots at the end 0f the tip

- Cyperus, Grasses, Strawberry

5. Divison ( Belahan )


6. Micropropagation / Tissue Culture

Thursday, July 2, 2009

歲寒三友



歲寒三友,指三種植物。因這三種植物在寒冬時節仍可保持頑強的生命力而得名,是中國傳統文化中高尚人格的象徵,傳到日本後又加上長壽的意義。

松和竹在嚴寒中不落葉,梅在寒裡開,有「清廉潔白」節操的意思,是古代文人的理想人格日本平安時代由中國傳入松竹梅,江戶時代起又有吉祥的意義。

中國宋朝時,歲寒三友常作為文人畫水墨畫的題材,如文同蘇軾作品元朝明朝陶瓷器也常有松竹梅的圖案。日本的陶瓷器、漆器織染也常用松竹梅圖案,常用於門松女兒節人形節日裝飾以及添丁婚禮喜慶事上面,常與鶴龜之類的主題一起用。

位於日本東京都天皇皇宮的正殿有三間廳堂,分別稱「松之殿」、「竹之殿」和「梅之殿」。其中,松之殿級別最高,是日本皇室進行正規儀式的場所。另外,在日本的壽司店中,往往也以「松竹梅」表示壽司拼盤的檔次規格。同樣,松往往是最高規格的代名詞。

松 (family : Pinaceae - genus : Pinus
其实松和竹是四季常青的,只有梅到了冬天才分外精神。三位朋友以松为首。因为它从南到北分布最广,大片的松林可以形成“朔风吹,林涛吼,峡谷震荡”震撼人心的听觉效果。孤松又可以在山巅上凌空独立,形成“暮色苍茫看劲松,乱云飞渡仍从容”的视觉奇观。

竹 ( family : Poaceae – subfamily : Bambusoideae )
是高雅、纯洁、虚心、有节的象征,古今庭园几乎无园不竹,居而有竹,则幽簧拂窗,清气满院;竹影婆娑,姿态入画,碧叶经冬不凋,清秀而又潇洒。古往今来,“不可一日无此君”已成了众多文人雅士的偏好。

梅 ( family : Rosaceae – Prunus mume )
梅花为中国传统十大名花之一,姿、色、香、韵俱佳。宋人林和靖的诗句“疏影横斜水清浅,暗香浮动月黄昏”,将梅花的姿容、神韵描绘得淋漓尽致。漫天飞雪之际,独有梅花笑傲严寒,破蕊怒放,这是何等的可爱、可贵!
  同时也象征着人卓而不群,超凡脱俗的品格.

四君子

四君子是中国画的传统题材,以谓四君子。


明代黄凤池辑有《梅竹兰菊四谱》,从此,梅兰竹菊被称为四君。画家用四君子来标榜君子的清高品德。《集雅蔡梅竹兰菊四谱小引》:文房清供,独取梅、竹、兰、菊四君者无他,则以其幽芳逸致,偏能涤人之秽肠而澄莹其神骨。明万历年间黄凤池还辑有《梅竹兰菊四谱》,一般均借四君子来表现正直、虚心、纯洁而有气节的思想感情。各种形式的四君子图案纹样,一直流传到现在。


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  梅,剪雪裁冰,一身傲骨


  兰,空谷幽香,孤芳自赏


  竹,筛风弄月,潇洒一生


  菊,凌霜自行,不趋炎势



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据画史记载,南北朝已经有人画花,到了北宋,画梅就成了一种风气,最有名的是仲仁和尚,他创墨梅,画梅全不用颜色,只用水墨深浅来加以表现。据说他看到月光把梅花映照在窗纸上的影子,从中得到了启发,便创作出用浓谈相间的水墨晕染而成的墨梅。此后,杨补之在这种基础上又进一步发展了这种画法。创造出一种双勾法来画梅花,使梅花纯洁高雅,野趣盎然。元明以来,用梅花作画更多。元代最大的画梅大师应该首推王冕,他自号梅花屋主,他的水墨梅画一变宋人稀疏冷倚之习,而为繁花密蕊,给人以热烈蓬勃向上之感。王冕的存世名作,是他的一幅《墨梅图》他用单纯的水墨和清淡野逸的笔致,生动地传达出了梅花的清肌傲骨,寄托了文人雅士孤高傲岸的情怀。明清的画梅者举不胜举,如刘世儒、石涛、金农、汪士慎等,从风格来看,他们大体继承了宋人的疏冷和元人的繁密两种画风。


画梅人还必须有画梅人的品格,有人称之为梅气骨,一种高尚的情操和洁身自好的品格,正所谓:画梅须有梅气骨,人与梅花一样清。


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人们画花,一般都寄托一种幽芳高洁的情操。如楚国诗人屈原就以秋兰兮清清,绿叶兮紫茎,满堂兮美人这样的诗句来咏兰。但兰花入画则比梅花晚,大概始于唐代。到了宋朝,画兰花的人便多了起来,据说苏轼就曾画过兰花,而且花中还夹杂有荆棘,寓意君子能容小人。南宋初,人们常以画兰花来表示一种宋邦沦覆之后不随世浮沉的气节,当时的赵孟坚和郑思肖,被同称为墨兰大家。元代以郑所南画兰花最为著名,寓意也最为明确。据说他坐必向南,以示怀念先朝,耻作元朝贰臣;他画的兰花,从不画根,就像飘浮在空中的一样,因:国土已被番人夺去,我岂肯着地?。欣赏绘画,也是必须了解历史背景的。而清人画兰,则以扬州八怪之一的郑板桥最为著名的了。郑板桥是一个注重师法自然的人,他画过盆兰。但尤嗜好画乱如蓬的山中野兰,为此,他曾自种兰花数十盆,并常在三春之后将其移植到野石山阴之处,使其于来年发箭成长,观其挺然直上之状态,闻其浓郁纯正之香味,因而得山中兰叶暖花酣气候浓的贞美实质。


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入画,大略和兰花相当,也始于唐代。唐代的皇帝唐玄宗、画家王维、吴道子等都喜画竹。据说到了五代,李夫人还创墨竹法,传说她常夜坐床头、见竹影婆娑映于窗纸上、乃循窗纸摹写而创此法。到宋代,苏轼发展了画竹的方法,放弃了以前的画家们的双勾着色法,而把枝干、叶均用水墨来画,深墨为叶面,淡墨为叶背。以后的元明清时代,画竹名家辈出,只要是山水或花鸟画家,没有不画竹的,而且开始强调竹的整体气势。不过,在众多的画家中,郑板桥的画竹也堪称为一绝。 郑板桥的作品,存世较多,流传也广,自清代以来,被世人行家所叹眼,成为人争宝之的珍品。


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花入画则稍晚,大略始于五代,比起梅兰竹来说,表现菊花的作品则相对要少得多。五代徐熙、黄筌都画过菊。宋人画菊者极少。元代苏明远、柯九思也有菊的作品。明清两代画菊的也不多。现有明代吴门画派中最享盛名的画家陈淳的一幅《菊石图》藏于首都博物愤,这是本来就较少的菊花作品中的珍品。   

五谷



五谷原是中国古代所称的五种谷物,后泛指粮食类作物,有“五谷丰登”的说法。其内容主要有两种。除了五谷外,还有六谷九谷的说法,五谷说之所以占上风,可能和五行思想的兴盛有关。

五谷的说法,最早见于《
论语》,在此前的《诗经》、《尚书》之中,只有“百谷”,而无“五谷”的提法。但对五谷究竟指哪五种作物,则出现在汉朝时的著作。

对五谷的内容,有两种说法。一种说法是
(粟)、(大豆)。而根据《大戴礼记》的记载,五谷是大麻)、黍、稷、麦、菽。两种说法的差别在于,一种有稻而无麻,另一种有麻而无稻。两种说法结合起来,就得出了稻、黍、稷、麦、菽、麻六种作物。战国时代的名著《吕氏春秋》(公元前三世纪作品)里有四篇专门谈论农业的文章,其中“审时”篇谈论栽种禾(稷)、黍、稻、麻、菽、麦这六种作物的情况;“十二纪”篇中说到的作物,也是这六种。


(稻米 Rice ) Oryza sativa
黍(黄米 Common millet )Panicum miliaceum
(小米 Foxtail millet) Setalia italica
麦(小麦 Wheat ) Triticum aestivum
麦(大麦 Barley ) Hordeum vulgare
(大豆 Soybean ) Glycine max
麻(大麻 Cannabis ) Cannabis sativa