Wednesday, 25 December 2013

Lansium domesticum var. duku

Lansium domesticum is a complicated species of trees of the  Meliaceae family. It originated throughout the entire Southeast Asian region.  The plant differs from place to place, thus numerous varieties, impossible even for one botanist/horticulturist to identify one.  The vast varieties of Lansium domesticum often lead to some botanist to differentiate them as different species. 

Overall, there are 2 main varieties : duku and langsat.  In addition, there are also mixed duku-langsat varieties.

The fruit are borne in cluster.  Fruit can be elliptical, oval or round, measuring 2 to 7 cm in diameter.  The skin can be smooth or rough, with skin thickness varies with the varieties.   The fruit contains 1 to 3 seeds, flat, and bitter tasting.  The seeds are covered with clear-white aril that tastes sweet and sour. 

This is a variety of duku brought by KeeSiong from his hometown Malacca.  The fruit range from 2 to 5 cm in diameter.  The skin are orangey, a bit rough-textured, and is enormously thick.   In the end, what makes me conclude it’s a duku is the sweet and sour taste.  Its definitely a duku

Wednesday, 23 October 2013

The Sun : There's gold in 'em trees

Copyright © 2013 AFP. All rights reserved.

Saturday, 12 October 2013

Solanum torvum - terung pipit

Terung Pipit is Solanum torvum, also known as Turkey berry, Devil’s fig, prickly nightshade, wild eggplant, pea eggplant, and many other names.

Originated from the West Indies, it is now widely distributed all over the Tropics, more as a noxious weed than cultivated crop.

The plant is 2 to 3 meter in height.  The branches and twigs are covered with hairs and spines.  Leaves are opposite, ovate, and lobed.  Flowers are white, tubular with 5 pointed lobes, in corymbiform cymes.  Fruits are berries in clusters, round, about 1cm diameter, green when mature, yellow when ripe, think-fleshed.  Seeds numerous, flat disc.

Propagation by seeds and cuttings.  The plant does not live long, up to 2 years the most.  Usually used as rootstocks for eggplants, for its resistant against root diseases.


The green fresh fruits are used in Thai cuisine, as well as Malay and Lao cuisine.  Fruits can be consumed fresh as salad or cooked with curry or soups, sauces and stews.   Dried fruits which are pre-soaked fruits in curd, were fried in oil to make sundaikkai vattral, an Indian condiment. 

Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Artificial Grass @ Inspire

It Is Obviously Not Obvious

Artificial grass is an innovative product substituting natural grass, that can be used on a long term basis. With its equally natural appearance, artificial grass is not only beautiful but also more practical when it comes to maintenance and landscaping.
Usually used for sports fields, golf courses, residential and business compounds, artificial grass allows landscape lovers to enjoy perfectly maintained grass all year round, regardless of the weather condition.

The texture of artificial grass is soft yet tough, making it comfortable to walk on even without footwear. Because of its toughness, artificial grass is able to endure the weight of heavy objects without leaving any dry patches or discolouration. Most artificial grass are treated with a UV inhibitor which helps to shield it from drastic fading and degradation caused by UV.

Using artificial grass is a smart choice because it requires minimal maintenance, making it unnecessary to mow, trim or fertilise. It is also environmental friendly as there is no need for harmful pesticides and it does not require any watering, which helps save water as well.

Some of the advantages of using artificial grass are:-

Ö  Long lasting and the colour does not fade easily.
Ö Easy to install.
Ö  Safe for both children and pets.
Ö  More hygienic as it does not require dirt or mud.
Ö  Suitable alternative in areas with little or no sunlight.
Ö  Excellent for swimming pool areas as it is non-slippery.

Le Grassi
Measuring at a height of 40mm, Le Grassi is denser and more compact, making it suitable for use in an indoor setting or padding a safe children-friendly playground.

Height:40mm  Gauge:3/8"      Stitch Rate:18(±2) stitches, with a 10cm width

Le Meadow
The measurement for Le Meadow is 36mm and is suitable for outdoor landscaping. It can be used in residential or business compounds, giving it an aesthetic look and creates a scenery that is pleasing to the eye.

Height:36mm  Gauge:3/8"      Stitch Rate:12(±2) stitches, with a 10cm width

Le Uniq
Specially designed with a U-shaped yarn and a green curl yarn, Le Uniq is ultra flexible and is ideal for landscaping and gardening. The U-shaped yarn gives Le Uniq a tougher characteristic, allowing it to stand upright compared to other types of artificial grass.

Height:30mm  Gauge:3/8"      Stitch Rate:18(±2) stitches, with a 10cm width

Le Clubio
Being 12mm in height, Le Clubio is best used for putting and mini golf courses. Its short and neatly groomed nature makes it easier for golf balls to roll a longer distance, giving golfers a more enjoyable golfing experience.


Height:12mm  Gauge:4.5mm  Stitch Rate:20(±3) stitches, with a 10cm width

Monday, 7 October 2013

The Star : Declining dietary diversity

Monday 7 October, 2013

Scan the supermarket isles and consumers appear to be faced with endless choice.

Now, take another look.  How much of this is really just different versions of the same plant ?  Pasta, bread, crackers, flour, cereals, cakes, noodles, couscous and beer, for example, are all the products of wheat.  For much of the world, dietary diversity in an illusion.  Most of our arable land is coming to be dominated by an increasingly narrow range of crops.

Maize, wheat and rice are the superstars of agriculture.   Together, they account for 60% of the world’s calorie intake.

But there was a time, within the last 10,000 years, when man made use of 30,000 plant, 7,000 of which were crops.

Cast the net a bit wider, and today it’s still only 120 species of plants that supply 90% of our diet – down from the 7,000 above.

The Crops For The Future Research Centre aims to investigate and, where appropriate, elevate the status of a variety of underutilized fruits and vegetables in our diet.   Some examples follows :

> Asam gelugur ( Garcinia atroviridis )
> Belimbing buluh ( Averrhoa bilimbi )
> Cerapu ( Garcinia parainiana )
> Ceri Terengganu ( Lepisanthes fruticosa )
> Kedondong ( Spondias cytherea )
> Kemunting ( Rhodomyrtus tomentosa )
> Kundang ( Couea macrophylla )
> Salak ( Salacca zalacca )
> Sentul ( Sandoricum macropodum )
> Sukun ( Artocarpus altilis )
> Rambai ( Baccaurea matleyana )

> Beluntas ( Pluchea indica )
> Beremi laut ( Portulaca spp. )
> Gandarusa ( Justicia gendarussa )
> Gajus merah ( Anarcardium accidentale )
> Kemoyang ( Homalomena sagittifolia )
> Mengkudu ( Morinda citrifolia )
> Mata itik ( Ardisia crenata )
> Peria pantai ( Colubrina asiatica )
> Tenggek burung ( Euodia ridleyi )
> Sabung nyawa ( Gynura procumbens )
> Salam ( Eugenia polyantha )

Tuesday, 1 October 2013

Poisonous Plants : Castor Plant

Castor plant, Ricinus communis, is a species of flowering plants in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. 

The name Ricinus is a Latin word for tick, for the resemblance of castor bean to certain ticks.  The specific name ‘communis’ comes from Latin word commun, which means “common”.

The  common name ‘castor oil’ comes from Latin word ‘castor’ for beaver, of which castor oil was used as replacement for castoreum, a perfume made from dried perineal glands of beavers.  Castor oil plant has another common name, palm of Christ, ‘Palma Christi’, that derived from its therapeutic oil.

Despite its name, castor bean is not a true bean.  Castor bean is the source of castor oil, as well as ricin, a lethal toxin.  Ricin is also present throughout the plant in lower concentration.

Originated from the Mediterranean Basin, castor plant is presently planted over the tropical regions.   Leading production of castor bean are : India, China and Brazil.  

Castor oil had been used since ancient time for its therapeutic value and as fuel for lamps.   It contain mostly ricinoleic acid, a prized monosaturated fatty acid.   Today, castor oil is used in food additives, flavoring, mold inhibitor, preservative, in addition to various modern drugs.  Castor oil derivatives are also used in manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic fluids, brake fluids, paints, dyes, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes, nylon, and perfumes.

Raw castor beans are however, famous for its lethal toxin ricin.  4 – 8 seeds alone can kill an adult human.  Despite this, suicides and murders involving ingestion of castor beans are unheard of in producing countries.   

If ricin is ingested, symptoms may begin within 2 – 4 hours, but may be delayed up to 36 hours.   Symptoms includes burning sensations in mouth and throat, abdominal pain, purging and bloody diarrhea.   

However, poisoning occurs only when ingested seeds are chewed.  Intact seeds may pass through digestive tract.

Commercially cold-pressed castor oil is not toxic to human in normal doses, either internally or externally.

Tuesday, 3 September 2013

Roadside Trees of Italy : Hazel

The hazels, Corylus  are deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.  Hazels are place in the Betulaceae, but some botanist spit them into a separate family Corylaceae.

The fruit of the hazel is the hazelnut.

Hazel have simple rounded leaves with double-serrated margins.  There flowers are produced early in spring before the leaves.  Flowers are monoeciuos.  Fruit surrounded by involucre, with a smooth shell.  

A hazel tree are coppiced every few years.  Regenerated shoots will bear more fruits.  Hazelnuts are harvested annually in mid-autumn.  The trees will drop their nuts as well as the leaves.  The nuts are swept off the ground and separated from debris.

Corylus has 14 – 18 species :
1. Corylus americana – American hazel
2. Corylus avellana – common hazel
3. Corylus heterophylla – Asian hazel
4. Corylus yunnanensis – Yunnan hazel
5. Corylus colchica – cochican filbert
6. Corylus cornuta – beaked hazel
7. Corylus maxima – filbert
8. Corylus sieboldiana – Asian beaked hazel
9. Corylus chinensis – Chinese hazel
10. Corylus colurna – Turkish hazel
11. Corylus fargesii – Farges’ hazel
12. Corylus jacquemontii – Jacquemont’s hazel
13. Corylus wangii – Wang’s hazel
14. Corylus ferox – Himalayan hazel
15. Corylus johnsonii

Several hybrids exist, and many more cultivars were grown.

The common hazelnut, Corylus avellana, is the most extensively grown hazel for its nuts.  Nut are also harvested from other species, but apart from the filbert, none is of significant commercial importance.

Apart from the edible seed, hazel is also a traditional material used for making wattle, withy fencing, baskets, and the frames of coracle boats.  A number of cultivars are grown as ornamental plants.

Hazelnuts are used in confectionary to make pralines, chocolate truffles and a wide range of hazelnut paste products : Austrian tortes, Ukrainian Kyiv cake ; French dacquoise ; Italian frangelico, Bicerin di Gianduiotto gianduja ; Georgian churchkhela and satsivi, etc.

The most famous Italian hazelnut products is none other than Ferrero Rocher.   Ferrero’s others famous hazelnut-based products includes : Nutella and Kinder Bueno.  Ferrero is based in Alba, a town in region of Piedmont, Italy.

Sunday, 1 September 2013

Roadside Trees of Italy : Olive

 Olive, Olea europaea, which means ‘oil from/of Europe’, is an evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean region.   It is easily recognized by its silvery green oblong leaves.  Flowers are small white.  The fruit is a small drupe.

There are six natural subspecies of Olea europaea distributed over a wide range :
1. Olea europaea subsp. europaea ( Mediterranean Basin )
2. Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata ( from South Africa throughout East Africa, Arabia to South West China )
3. Olea europaea subsp. guanchica ( Canaries )
4. Olea europaea subsp. cerasiformis ( Madeira ) ( tetraploid )
5. Olea europaea subsp. maroccana ( Morocco ) ( hexaploid )
6. Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei ( Algeria, Sudan, Niger )

Though, there are thousands of cultivars of the Olea europaea.

Olive tree is very hardy.  They are drought-, disease-, and fire-resistant.  The root system is capable to regenerate even if the above-ground structure is destroyed.  It is therefore many olive trees are said to be hundred of years old.  A few were claimed to be over one or two thousand years old.

The olive tree are cultivated for olive oil, fine wood, olive leaf and the olive fruit.     Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil mechanically or chemically.  Italy alone, produced over 15% of world’s olive oil.   Olive leaves are used for its medicinal properties. 

Interestingly, olives are harvested by shaking the bough or the whole tree.  Net are wrap around the trunk to catch the fallen fruits.  Table olive are hand-picked.  Bruised fruits tend to be inferior quality.

Fresh olives are not palatable as they contain oleuropein, which make them bitter ; and phenolic compounds  They are cured with lye, brine or fresh water to make them more palatable.   Oleuropein is removed by soaking in fresh water or brine.  Most olives will be allowed to ferment before being packed in brine solution.  Olives can be flavoured by soaking in a marinade or pitted and stuffed.

Thursday, 15 August 2013

Langkawi Geopark

Langkawi comprises a group of 99 tropical islands laying of the northwestern coast of Peninsular Malaysia.   With a geological history dating back 550 million years, the islands contain unique rock formations, which earn itself UNESCO’s Global Geopark status on June 1st, 2007.


Langkawi was born in the Cambrian era as a broad sedimentary mound, as part of the Gondwanaland supercontinent,  at the bottom of a turbulent sea just north of the equator.  Tectonic plate movements carried the mound south to the cold Antarctic regions.  The frozen glacier crushed the limestone, sandstone and siltstone into a base of hard granite and marble.  Then, over 400 million years, it was covered by deposits of various material from sea life skeletons to glacial droppings.

During the Permian period, the plate broke away and moved northward back to the equator.  In a series of cataclysmic event accompanied by exploding volcanoes and hot lava, the plate crashed up against the East Malaysia/Indochina block, which pushed the whole block all the way to the surface to form the Malay Peninsular.  The cataclysmic events also pushed the Himalayas to the roof of the world.

Large mound of rock and limestone then form small group of islands off the coast of the Malay Peninsular.   One mount of hot magma eventually squirmed up some 800 meters to form the Gunung Raya.  At about the same time, an ancient limestone mountain rose from the sea to form Gunung Machinchang.

During the Jurassic period, the land is further carved by the erosions, chemical reactions and a series of uplifting eruptions.

Later during the last Ice Age, sea levels were pushed up and down drastically as a result of glacial melting and global cooling, forming caves full of fossils.

Langkawi Geopark

Langkawi Geopark comprises of Machinchang Cambrian Geoforest Park ( 4,274 ha ), Kilim Karst Geoforest Park (8,261 ha ), and Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Park ( 4,354 ha ). 

The Machinchang Cambrian Geoforest Park

Machinchang Cambrian Geoforest Park hosts the oldest geological formation in Malaysia known as the Machinchang Formation ; oldest grains of sand at Teluk Datai ; oldest fossil on Pulau Jemuruk. ; and Tanjung Sabung where limestone succeeds sandstone. 
Other attractions within the park include : Telaga Tujuh waterfall,  beautiful beaches in Teluk Datai and Pantai Kok.

Kilim Karst Geoforest Park

Kilim Karst Geoforst Park features magnificent landscape of limestone pinnacles of various shape and sizes.  The northeastern region encompassing three river basins of Kilim, Air Hangat and Kisap too host magnificent landscape of mudflats, beaches, mangroves and caves.  The name ‘Langkawi’ is said to have been derived from the Brahminy Kite eagle, which is the dominant faunal species of the area.

The Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Park

The Dayang Bunting Marble Geoforest Park is made of Permian marble overthrusted by older Setul Formation limestone.    One of the most unique features of the park is the fresh water lake of Tasik Dayang Bunting, formerly a dry doline resulted from the collapse of a very large underground limestone cave.

Other geological marvels

An alien granite dropstone that is 1 billionyears old can be founding sandstone and mudstone at Pulau Tepor.  These dropstones once drifted by a glacier before it was dropped in Langkawi which was still submerge underwater.

An ancient seabed also can be found in Pulau Ular.

A cater known as Mahsuri Ring is said to be the result of the impact of a meteor .  The crater lay in the alluvium paddy field, is visible from Gunung Raya.

Friday, 2 August 2013

Momordica dioica - Kakrol

Kakrol is most probably the fruit of Momordica dioica, a liana of the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.   Kankrol is also known as spiny gourd, teasle gourd.  

In South Asia, where kakrol is widely cultivated for consumption, it is known in many names : karela (Hindi), katwal (Gujarati), erimapasel (Malayalam), karkotaki (Sanskrit), palu-pakal (Tamil), advikakara (Telugu), bhat korola (Bengali),  etc.

A kakrol fruit is oblong, about 6cm in length and 3cm in diameter, turned yellow upon ripening, with surface covered in many small soft blunt pines. 

Kakrol fruits is bitter in taste.  They are usually peeled before cooking.  They are usually cook with curry, or hollowed, stuffed with spices and steamed, or made into pickle, etc.  

Thursday, 1 August 2013

Salvinia minima - Common Salvinia

Salvinia minima is a species of aquatic, floating fern of Salviniaceae family native to South America. 

The leaves of S. minima are small and oval, ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 cm in length.  The leaves grow in sets of three, with two leaves floating on the surface and one leaf dissected, hanging underneath.  Fine white hair grow uniformly on the leaf surface.  Brown hairs present on the underside of leaves.  S. minima is rootless.
Salvinia minima is classified as an invasive species on the Global Invasive Species Database.  It can be a nuisance to recreational watercraft, have adverse affects on fish farming, rice farming, and poses a serious threat to native species and biodiversity.
Salvinia minima grows on the surface of still freshwater.  Although it is sterile, S. minima can reproduce quickly very quickly asexually through fragmentation.  Buds and rhizome fragments can also remain dormant for long period of time when growth is less favorable.

S. minima undergoes 3 stages of growth.  In the primary stage, the leaves will lie flat on the water surface.  In the secondary stage, the leaves multiply and curl upward.  In the tertiary stage, the leaves become more dense and almost vertical due of crowding.

S. minima can easily out-compete and inhibit the growth of native water plants.  Mats of S. minima can block sunlight from entering the water.  S. minima, which has no nutritional value, is not favoured by fish or bird species as a food source.

In order to protect native ecosystems, numerous effort have been taken to control or eradicate the growth of Salvinia minima.   Herbicides that have been used with best success include : fluridone, imazamoz, and penoxsulam.  Successful biological control agent includes Crytobagous salviniae,  the salvinia weevil native to South America ; and Samea multiplicalis, the salvinia stem-borer moth native to southern US.


Tuesday, 16 July 2013

The Star : Rare finds on outcrops

Tuesday July 16, 2013

Lush hills: Soaring limestone outcrops, such as Gua Panjang, tower over the landscape of Kampung Merapoh, Pahang. Botanists say each hill is dominated by different flora. – Photo by LAILA BASIR

Botanists uncover a flora treasure trove in Merapoh hills.

THE drive along Federal Route 8, or the Gua Musang Highway, in Pahang, is a rather scenic one. Towering over the expanse of oil palm estates, which are broken up in parts by rural kampung and lush forests, are majestic-looking limestone outcrops.

Some 20 limestone karsts – some people say it is at least 30, as not all are shown on maps – are scattered along the road stretching from Chegar Perah to Merapoh in the district of Lipis before the land inches into Kelantan territory.

The karsts are highly visible as one makes the drive but surprisingly, they are completely unknown from a botanical viewpoint.

“We looked for data and found no record of the plants there. None of the limestone hills have been botanically explored before. For us, it’s a botanical blank on the map of flora,” says Dr Ruth Kiew, a plant taxonomist at the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM).

And so, when her team converged on the hills around Merapoh, there were plenty of interesting discoveries – there were rare, endemic plants, and even an undescribed one.

At Gua Gunting, the hill which will be quarried, they recorded over 200 plant species in just two days. This is hardly surprising as limestone hills are known for their rich plant diversity.

Peninsular Malaysia’s limestone hills cover only 0.3% of the land area but are home to 14% of her plant species. Unfortunately, none of the limestone hills in Merapoh are protected, and hence, are at risk from wanton development. The FRIM team made two trips this year, where they surveyed five hills.

“From what we have found so far, it’s a unique place as the flora on each hill is so different. This is unique from my experience of working in Malaysia,” says Dr Kiew, a leading authority on limestone flora. “I expected the flora to be an extension of limestones from Gua Musang (in Kelantan), so I was surprised that the hills are so different and we’re picking up unexpected things.”

One such instance is the discovery of Pararuellia sumatrana (below) var. ridleyi which is previously known only from Batu Caves, Selangor.

Pararuellia sumatrana var. ridleyi was thought to grow only in Batu Caves, Selangor, but was recently found in Merapoh.

Another important find is that of a balsam, Rhynchoglossum obliqua, previously known only from Gunung Tupus (at Chegar Perah, south of Merapoh) and another undisclosed site. FRIM scientists failed to locate the plant at Gunung Tupus, now surrounded by oil palms, and believe it has become extinct there.

“This is just one indication of what can happen. If limestone hills are surrounded by oil palms and there is burning to clear the land, that will destroy the flora. If the hills are not protected with a buffer, then it is easy for species to become extinct.”

The Merapoh hills also harbour species of fern, begonia and balsam that grow only on limestone. The scientist also found the Pandanus irregularis which is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia and grows only on the summits of limestone hills.

Some other finds:

> Spelaeanthus chinii – Endemic to Pahang, it was previously known only from Taman Negara and another hill in Lipis.

> Zippelia begoniifolius – Known from only three collections, the last one in the 1930s.

> Monophyllaea musangensis - Previously known only from Gua Musang, Kelantan.

> Tridynamia megalantha – Last collected in Perak in the 1880s.

> Calciphilopteris alleniae - A rare endemic fern known only from five limestone hills.

> Cleisostoma complicatum – This is the third locale for this orchid which is found in Pahang for the first time.

These are just the preliminary findings; the botanists have bags of specimens awaiting analysis and they intend to make more trips to Merapoh.

“We’re just scratching the surface as we’ve only surveyed five hills. We need to survey all 20 hills to document the plants and see which is critically important for conservation because of rare and endangered species.

“Limestone hills have a lot of micro-habitats. For instance, at the foothills you get plants suited to damp conditions. On the rock face, there are other types of flora and at the hilltop, you get plants which are exposed to the sun. So, you must survey all habitats to get a complete list of the flora,” says Dr Kiew.

She adds that surveys of fossils, micro-snails and cave fauna are also needed to determine the importance of the hills for wildlife.

Preservation of the caves is important, she adds, as they can be part of the Sungai Yu wildlife corridor, a stretch of forest that is important for connecting Taman Negara and the Main Range, the country’s two largest forest complexes.

Monday, 15 July 2013

Kodaihasu 古代蓮 @ Gyoda

Kodaihasu (古代蓮) literally means “ancient lotus” refers to preserved lotus seeds, perhaps 2500-3000 years old, found in 1971 in the a construction ground at Kemigawa (検見川), Chiba prefecture (千葉県).

The seeds were germinated and planted in a garden in Gyoda (行田市), Saitama prefecture (埼玉県).  Today, over 120,000 lotus plants of 42 different variety grow in the kodaihasu-no-sato ( 古代蓮池 “ancient lotus pond” ).

Tuesday, 2 July 2013

Lake Kenyir

Upon the completion of the Sultan Mahumd Hydro-electric Power Station in 1985, Terengganu’s interior water catchment rose, transforming valley into lake, and hilltops into islands. 

Spanning over 209,000 hectares, Lake Kenyir is the largest man-made lake in SEA, stretching as far west as Kelantan and south to Pahang.   Lake Kenyir was named after the Kenyir River, one of the rivers that rose due to the  construction of Jenagor Dam.

Over 340 islands throughout the lake, Chergau Island is the largest island, which also stand the highest peak, Mount Chergau.  Other islands include Bayas, Sumas, Jelatang, Batu Pipit, and many others.

Limestones hills in Kenyir Lake hose two great caves.  Taat Cave is popular for ist stalactites and stalagmites.  Bewah Cave is treasured for its artifacts dated back to Stone Age, and skeletal remains  dated to be 16,000 years old, the oldest skeleton ever found in Malaysia.  Both caves located some 2 hours boat ride from Gawi Jetty.

Parks & Gardens
Butterfly Park located on Lubuk Geras Island,  houses over 100 species of butterfly include the Rajah Brooks and Golden Birdwings.
Herbal Park located on Sah Kecil Island,  houses more than  200 traditional herbal species.
Bird Park located on Mati Island, , houses over 153 species of birds.
Orchid Garden located across 3 islands : Hulu Selimbar Island, Hilir Selimbar Island and Belit Islantd.
Tropical Garden located on 2 lslands : Tekak Besar Island and Sg Tekak Island.

Sg Petang Kelah Sanctuary open to visitors from March to October, gazetted for the protection, preservation and reproduction of the kelah fish ( Tor tambroides ).

Kenyir Elephant Camp located at Telemong River, set up by PERIHITAN, KETENGAH and Terengganu state government, the camp is a center for elephant translocation.

Taman Botani Negara

Waktu Operasi :
8:am – 4:30pm

Bayaran Masuk :
Dewasa ( 12 tahun & ke atas )  RM3.00
Kanak-kanak ( 6- 11 tahun )  RM1.00
Warga Tua ( 55 tahun ke atas )  RM 1.00

Bayaran Masuk :
( Taman Iklim Sederhana 4 Musim )
Dewasa ( 12 tahun & ke atas )  RM3.00
Kanak-kanak ( 6- 11 tahun )  RM1.00

Operator Swasta :
Skytrek - 013 276 9841
Paintball – 017 683 0273
Flyfishing – 012 324 6959
Basikal – 019 260 5331

Pertanyaan :
+603 5510 7048

Monday, 1 July 2013

Milletia speciosa - 山莲藕

山莲藕,又名大力牛、牛大力、大口唇、扮山虎、扒山虎、坡蓮藕、地藕、大蓮藕、血藤、大力薯、倒吊金鐘。为豆科植物美丽崖豆藤 Milletia speciosa  Champ. 的根。夏、秋间采挖,晒干。

山莲藕为偃伏生灌木,树皮褐色。羽状复叶。 花白色,雜有黃色。


Morinda citrifolia - Mengkudu

Noni or mengkudu is Morinda citrifolia.  It is a shrub of the Rubiaceae family, native from Southeast Asia and Australasia.

From the look of it, it is obvious that mengkudu is a multiple fruit.  It is green when young, and turn yellowish or whitish  upon ripening.  Ripened fruit has a strong pungent odour, distasteful for some.   Despite its strong smell and bitter taste, the fruit is nevertheless consumed as a famine food, in some Pacific islands, as a staple food.  The seeds are edible when roasted.

Morinda citrifolia fruit contains moderate amount of carbohydrate and dietary fibre.  It also contains vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, iron, potassium, calcium and sodium. 

The fruits are studies for its phytochemical compounds : lignans, oligo- and polysaccharides, flavonoids, iridoids, fatty acids, scoploetin, catechin, beta-sitosterol, damnacantha, and alkaloids.  Although no conclusive evidence of the fruit on human health, the Polynesian uses the green fuits, leaves and roots to treat menstrual cramps, bowel irregularities, diabetes, liver diseases and urinal tract infections.  

Brownish-purplish dye is extracted from its bark for batik-making.  In Hawaii, yellowish dye is extracted from its root.

Saturday, 29 June 2013

Pineapples of Johan Setia

Johan Setia is located down south of Klang ( known as Port Swettenham during the colonial days ), along the fertile western coastal of Malayan peninsular.

Peat soil predominate the area.  It is loosened with high water level,  making it not suitable for tall upright crops such as oil palm and fruit trees.  They tend to toppled or slanted easily.
Yet, peat soil is ideal for pineapple cultivation, and many other food crop such as tapioca, sweet potato, sugarcane, and all kinds of greens.

The pineapple varieties planted include :





Friday, 28 June 2013

TV1 meets IOI @ Floria 2013

Mawar kena interview wartawan TV1
kononnya disiar besok lusa kat MHI


before shooting, gather info dulu konon
cakap sendiri...

ok !  stand by...

wartawan : "konsep in siapa punya idea ?"
Mawar :"eee.. idea siapa ye?!"

 close-up...  nervous ke ?

NG !!!  one more take !

Tuesday, 25 June 2013

Trichosanthes dioica - Potol

Potol ( in Bengali ), or parwal ( in Hindi ), or parol ( in Nepali ) is Trichosanthes dioica, is a gourd widely cultivated in eastern part of India, Nepal and even Bangladesh.  

Pointed gourd is a vine plant of the Cucurbitaceae family.  It is perennial, dioecious, with heart-shaped leaves.  The gourds are green or with white or no stripes.   Size can vary from 6 to 10 inches. 

The pointed gourd in recently brought into Malaysia by Bangladeshi and Nepali foreign workers.  Today, it found its way into local markets and night markets as well, yet the locals have yet to acquire the taste for it.  It is used as ingredients of soup, stew, curry, sweet or stir-fried.

It is a good source of carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin C, and other major nutrients and trace elements.

Friday, 14 June 2013

Khaya senegalensis

Khaya senegalensis is a tree of the Meliaceae family native to tropical and savannah Africa.

It is commonly known as African mahogany, Gambia mahogany, and Senegal mahogany.  The timber of Khaya is called African mahogany, the only timber widely accepted as mahogany besides the true mahogany ( Swietenia mahogany ).

The leaves are pinnate.  Flowers are small, yellowish, loose inflorescences, 4-petals.  Fruit is a capsule with 4 globose, dehiscent.  Seeds winged.

Khaya senegalensis is a fast growing tree, capable to grow up to 30 meters in height within years.  The wood is harvested for carpentry, construction, dugout canoes, etc.  the bitter tasting bark is used as folk medicine for fever, stomach aches, headaches etc.

Although K. senegalensis is widely planted for commercial and landscaping, it is still considered a vulnerable species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

flower, yellowish in loose inflorescence

fruit capsule, dehiscent  while attached to tree

fruit capsules, dehiscent showing winged seeds inside

winged seeds