Tuesday, 16 July 2013

The Star : Rare finds on outcrops

Tuesday July 16, 2013

Lush hills: Soaring limestone outcrops, such as Gua Panjang, tower over the landscape of Kampung Merapoh, Pahang. Botanists say each hill is dominated by different flora. – Photo by LAILA BASIR

Botanists uncover a flora treasure trove in Merapoh hills.

THE drive along Federal Route 8, or the Gua Musang Highway, in Pahang, is a rather scenic one. Towering over the expanse of oil palm estates, which are broken up in parts by rural kampung and lush forests, are majestic-looking limestone outcrops.

Some 20 limestone karsts – some people say it is at least 30, as not all are shown on maps – are scattered along the road stretching from Chegar Perah to Merapoh in the district of Lipis before the land inches into Kelantan territory.

The karsts are highly visible as one makes the drive but surprisingly, they are completely unknown from a botanical viewpoint.

“We looked for data and found no record of the plants there. None of the limestone hills have been botanically explored before. For us, it’s a botanical blank on the map of flora,” says Dr Ruth Kiew, a plant taxonomist at the Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM).

And so, when her team converged on the hills around Merapoh, there were plenty of interesting discoveries – there were rare, endemic plants, and even an undescribed one.

At Gua Gunting, the hill which will be quarried, they recorded over 200 plant species in just two days. This is hardly surprising as limestone hills are known for their rich plant diversity.

Peninsular Malaysia’s limestone hills cover only 0.3% of the land area but are home to 14% of her plant species. Unfortunately, none of the limestone hills in Merapoh are protected, and hence, are at risk from wanton development. The FRIM team made two trips this year, where they surveyed five hills.

“From what we have found so far, it’s a unique place as the flora on each hill is so different. This is unique from my experience of working in Malaysia,” says Dr Kiew, a leading authority on limestone flora. “I expected the flora to be an extension of limestones from Gua Musang (in Kelantan), so I was surprised that the hills are so different and we’re picking up unexpected things.”

One such instance is the discovery of Pararuellia sumatrana (below) var. ridleyi which is previously known only from Batu Caves, Selangor.

Pararuellia sumatrana var. ridleyi was thought to grow only in Batu Caves, Selangor, but was recently found in Merapoh.

Another important find is that of a balsam, Rhynchoglossum obliqua, previously known only from Gunung Tupus (at Chegar Perah, south of Merapoh) and another undisclosed site. FRIM scientists failed to locate the plant at Gunung Tupus, now surrounded by oil palms, and believe it has become extinct there.

“This is just one indication of what can happen. If limestone hills are surrounded by oil palms and there is burning to clear the land, that will destroy the flora. If the hills are not protected with a buffer, then it is easy for species to become extinct.”

The Merapoh hills also harbour species of fern, begonia and balsam that grow only on limestone. The scientist also found the Pandanus irregularis which is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia and grows only on the summits of limestone hills.

Some other finds:

> Spelaeanthus chinii – Endemic to Pahang, it was previously known only from Taman Negara and another hill in Lipis.

> Zippelia begoniifolius – Known from only three collections, the last one in the 1930s.

> Monophyllaea musangensis - Previously known only from Gua Musang, Kelantan.

> Tridynamia megalantha – Last collected in Perak in the 1880s.

> Calciphilopteris alleniae - A rare endemic fern known only from five limestone hills.

> Cleisostoma complicatum – This is the third locale for this orchid which is found in Pahang for the first time.

These are just the preliminary findings; the botanists have bags of specimens awaiting analysis and they intend to make more trips to Merapoh.

“We’re just scratching the surface as we’ve only surveyed five hills. We need to survey all 20 hills to document the plants and see which is critically important for conservation because of rare and endangered species.

“Limestone hills have a lot of micro-habitats. For instance, at the foothills you get plants suited to damp conditions. On the rock face, there are other types of flora and at the hilltop, you get plants which are exposed to the sun. So, you must survey all habitats to get a complete list of the flora,” says Dr Kiew.

She adds that surveys of fossils, micro-snails and cave fauna are also needed to determine the importance of the hills for wildlife.

Preservation of the caves is important, she adds, as they can be part of the Sungai Yu wildlife corridor, a stretch of forest that is important for connecting Taman Negara and the Main Range, the country’s two largest forest complexes.

Monday, 15 July 2013

Kodaihasu 古代蓮 @ Gyoda

Kodaihasu (古代蓮) literally means “ancient lotus” refers to preserved lotus seeds, perhaps 2500-3000 years old, found in 1971 in the a construction ground at Kemigawa (検見川), Chiba prefecture (千葉県).

The seeds were germinated and planted in a garden in Gyoda (行田市), Saitama prefecture (埼玉県).  Today, over 120,000 lotus plants of 42 different variety grow in the kodaihasu-no-sato ( 古代蓮池 “ancient lotus pond” ).

Tuesday, 2 July 2013

Lake Kenyir

Upon the completion of the Sultan Mahumd Hydro-electric Power Station in 1985, Terengganu’s interior water catchment rose, transforming valley into lake, and hilltops into islands. 

Spanning over 209,000 hectares, Lake Kenyir is the largest man-made lake in SEA, stretching as far west as Kelantan and south to Pahang.   Lake Kenyir was named after the Kenyir River, one of the rivers that rose due to the  construction of Jenagor Dam.

Over 340 islands throughout the lake, Chergau Island is the largest island, which also stand the highest peak, Mount Chergau.  Other islands include Bayas, Sumas, Jelatang, Batu Pipit, and many others.

Limestones hills in Kenyir Lake hose two great caves.  Taat Cave is popular for ist stalactites and stalagmites.  Bewah Cave is treasured for its artifacts dated back to Stone Age, and skeletal remains  dated to be 16,000 years old, the oldest skeleton ever found in Malaysia.  Both caves located some 2 hours boat ride from Gawi Jetty.

Parks & Gardens
Butterfly Park located on Lubuk Geras Island,  houses over 100 species of butterfly include the Rajah Brooks and Golden Birdwings.
Herbal Park located on Sah Kecil Island,  houses more than  200 traditional herbal species.
Bird Park located on Mati Island, , houses over 153 species of birds.
Orchid Garden located across 3 islands : Hulu Selimbar Island, Hilir Selimbar Island and Belit Islantd.
Tropical Garden located on 2 lslands : Tekak Besar Island and Sg Tekak Island.

Sg Petang Kelah Sanctuary open to visitors from March to October, gazetted for the protection, preservation and reproduction of the kelah fish ( Tor tambroides ).

Kenyir Elephant Camp located at Telemong River, set up by PERIHITAN, KETENGAH and Terengganu state government, the camp is a center for elephant translocation.

Taman Botani Negara

Waktu Operasi :
8:am – 4:30pm

Bayaran Masuk :
Dewasa ( 12 tahun & ke atas )  RM3.00
Kanak-kanak ( 6- 11 tahun )  RM1.00
Warga Tua ( 55 tahun ke atas )  RM 1.00

Bayaran Masuk :
( Taman Iklim Sederhana 4 Musim )
Dewasa ( 12 tahun & ke atas )  RM3.00
Kanak-kanak ( 6- 11 tahun )  RM1.00

Operator Swasta :
Skytrek - 013 276 9841
Paintball – 017 683 0273
Flyfishing – 012 324 6959
Basikal – 019 260 5331

Pertanyaan :
+603 5510 7048

Monday, 1 July 2013

Milletia speciosa - 山莲藕

山莲藕,又名大力牛、牛大力、大口唇、扮山虎、扒山虎、坡蓮藕、地藕、大蓮藕、血藤、大力薯、倒吊金鐘。为豆科植物美丽崖豆藤 Milletia speciosa  Champ. 的根。夏、秋间采挖,晒干。

山莲藕为偃伏生灌木,树皮褐色。羽状复叶。 花白色,雜有黃色。


Morinda citrifolia - Mengkudu

Noni or mengkudu is Morinda citrifolia.  It is a shrub of the Rubiaceae family, native from Southeast Asia and Australasia.

From the look of it, it is obvious that mengkudu is a multiple fruit.  It is green when young, and turn yellowish or whitish  upon ripening.  Ripened fruit has a strong pungent odour, distasteful for some.   Despite its strong smell and bitter taste, the fruit is nevertheless consumed as a famine food, in some Pacific islands, as a staple food.  The seeds are edible when roasted.

Morinda citrifolia fruit contains moderate amount of carbohydrate and dietary fibre.  It also contains vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, iron, potassium, calcium and sodium. 

The fruits are studies for its phytochemical compounds : lignans, oligo- and polysaccharides, flavonoids, iridoids, fatty acids, scoploetin, catechin, beta-sitosterol, damnacantha, and alkaloids.  Although no conclusive evidence of the fruit on human health, the Polynesian uses the green fuits, leaves and roots to treat menstrual cramps, bowel irregularities, diabetes, liver diseases and urinal tract infections.  

Brownish-purplish dye is extracted from its bark for batik-making.  In Hawaii, yellowish dye is extracted from its root.