Saturday, 19 October 2019

The Four Tribes of Malvoideae

Subfamily Malvoideae now comprises the traditional Malvaceae and has consistently emerged as a very homogeneous, monophyletic group. In a recent treatment of Malvoideae, Bayer and Kutbitzki (2003) divide the subfamily into four tribes: Gossypieae, Hibisceae, Kydieae, and Malveae.

The Malvoideae can be further ranked into the tribes listed below:

Tribe Gossypieae

Tribe Gossypieae has been redifined to include eight genera: Gossypium, Cephalohibiscus, Cienfuegosia, Hampea, Kokia, Gossypioides, Lebronnecia and Thespesia. It is specifically separated from the Hibisceae tribe based on embryo structure and the presence of pigment glands. These glands are associated with the capacity to synthesize the pigment gossypol. The Gossypieae appear to be unique in possessing these glands and this capacity.

More than 50 species of Gossypium are distributed in arid to semi-arid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Of these, four species were independently domesticated for their fiber (cotton) in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Gossypium species exhibit extraordinary morphological variation, with a diverse array of characteristics, ranging from trailing herbaceous perennials to 15m tall trees.

Tribe Hibisceae
Tribe Hibisceae is best known for its largest genus, Hibiscus — one of the world's most popular horticultural plant genera — which includes more than 300 species worldwide. The tribe Hibisceae includes (but is not limited to) :  Abelmoschus, Hibiscadelphus, Hibiscus, Kosteletzkya, Malvaviscus, Pavonia, Radyera, Talipariti and Wercklea.

Tribe Kydieae
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Tribe Malveae

Tribe Malveae includes approximately 70 genera (1000 species) that encompass the majority of the morphological and taxonomic diversity in the Malvoideae subfamily. The genera of Malveae exhibit a broad geographic distribution, with representatives in both tropic and temperate areas in a variety of habitats. Around 15 of the 70 Malveae genera have mostly temperate distributions, while some of the largest genera in the tribe (Abutilon, Sida, Nototriche) have primarily tropical distributions.

The Nine Subfamilies of Malvaceae

The Malvaceae family presents many challenges for taxonomists. Opinions often differ as where to draw the lines between species, between genera, between tribes and between the subfamilies. This is not surprising — the Malvaceae family encompasses over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species!

In terms of number of species, the largest genera include Hibiscus (~300 species), Sterculia (~250 species), Dombeya (~225 species), Pavonia (~200 species) and Sida (~200 species).

In recent years an expanded circumscription of the Malvaceae family has been created, which is composed of nine subfamilies. The relationships between these subfamilies are still obscure, and the subject of ongoing discussion. The traditional Malvaceae have been moved to Malvoideae, the subfamily that now approximately corresponds to that group.

1. Bombacoideae (formerly Bombacaceae, in part), 12 genera, (~120 species).
2. Brownlowioideae,  8 genera, (~70 species).
3. Byttnerioideae, 26 genera, (~650 species).
4. Dombeyoideae, ~20 genera, (~380 species).
5. Grewioideae, 25 genera, (~770 species).
6. Helicteroideae, 8 to 12 genera, 10 to 90 species.
7. Sterculioideae, (formerly Sterculiaceae, in part), 12 genera, (~430 species).
8. Tilioideae, (formerly Tiliaceae, in part) 3 genera, (~50 species).
9. Malvoideae, (formerly Malvaceae), 78 genera, (~1,600 species). 

Friday, 18 October 2019

Cassia x nealiae

The rainbow shower tree is actually a sterile hybrid of two Cassia species.   In Honolulu, it became so widely cultivated that the multicolored cultivar “Wilhelmina Tenney” was declared the official tree of the City and County of Honolulu in 1965.

The original hybrid cross was done in Hawaii around 1916 by David Haughs. 

The tree is scientifically named Cassia x nealiae honoring Marie C. Neal.  She was a well-known Hawaiian botanist and author of botanical reference book, “In Gardens of Hawaii.”  In her 1928 original and her 1965 revision, she refers to the rainbow shower as the cross Cassia javanica x C. fistula.

Her propagation advice is that it is best done by cross-pollinating blossoms of the pink-and-white shower tree with blossoms of the golden shower tree and using seeds from the resulting cross.   

Four distinct color variants have resulted from the original cross, they include ones that are predominantly yellow, white or gold as well as “Wilhelmena Tenny,” which produces the streaked yellow and cerise flowers. The flowers on the rainbow trees are produced on long pendulant racemes that appear on branches that bear stems of inch-long dark green leaflets.

Rainbow shower trees can tolerate many soil types but prefer to grow in soil that drains well. The tree is fairly drought tolerant and can make a nice addition to a xeriscape garden. It is not, however, very salt or wind tolerant, so should be grown away from the ocean and in areas of low wind.

Sunday, 13 October 2019

Bawang Dayak - Eleutherine bulbosa

Eleutherine bulbosa is an herbaceous, perennial flowering plant species in the iris family (Iridaceae) , first described as a genus in 1843.  The generic name derived from the Greek word eleuthera, meaning "free".

It is known as Bawang Dayak in Sarawak, Bawang Sabrang ( Indonesia ), Babawangan ( Sunda )

Bermudiana bulbosa, B. congesta.
Cipura plicata.
Eleutherine americana, E.anomala, E. longifolia, E. plicata, E. plicata, E. subaphylla,
Ferraria parviflora..
Galatea Americana, G bulbosa, G plicata,  
Ixia americana.
Sisyrinchium americanum,  S. bulbosum, S. capitatum, S. congestum, S. elatum, S. latifolium. S. palmifolium var. congestum, S. plicatum, S.racemosum

Origin & Distribution
The plant is originated from tropical America, but now is widely cultivated South East Asia.

E. bulbosa is a berbaceous plant capable to grow up to 40cm in height.
The stem is erect or drooping, subterranean, elongated ovoid and red in colour.
The leaves ae radial, lanceolate, glabrous, measure 25-60cm x 1.2-5cm.
The flower are white or yellow in colour and open in the evening for 2 hours.

Eleutherine bulbosa is an important element of the American Indian pharmacopeia. 

In SE Asia Eleutherine bulbosa is used as carminative, together with galangal it can treat cold and nasal congestion in children.  In Dayak tribe, it is used the bulb for increasing breast-milk production as well as treatment of diabetes, breast cancer, stroke, hypertension and sexual disorder.  In other areas it is found to treat coronary disorder, and used as diuretic, emetic, purgative, prothrombin decreasing, antifertility, anti-hipertension, wound-healing activity.

Sunday, 6 October 2019


人生果实 人生フルーツ (2017)

孜孜不倦 不紧不慢

导演: 伏原健之
主演: 津端修一 / 津端英子 / 树木希林
类型: 纪录片
制片国家/地区: 日本
语言: 日语
上映日期: 2017-01-02(日本)
片长: 91分钟
又名: 积存时间的生活() / 人生水果 / Life Is Fruity
IMDb链接: tt6161512

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