Saturday, May 14, 2011

Mangrove Flora Species

Mangroves are various kinds of plants that grows in saline costal sediment habitat in the tropics and subtropics.  A narrower definition refers only for the mangrove family of the plants, the Rhizophoraceae.  More specifically, mangroves are just for mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.

Mangroves form a distinct characteristic saline woodland or shrubland habitat, called mangrove swamp, mangrove forest, mangrove or mangal.  It dominates 3 quarters of tropical costlines. 

A total of about 110 species are considered mangroves, of different opinions.  Tomlinson ( 1986 ) identified 54 species ; Duke ( 1992 ) identified 69 species.  Categorization is usually based on the plants’ adaptation to low oxygen, high salinity, poor nutrient and offspring survival mechanism.

Tomlinson, in his book The Botany of Mangoves, published by the Press Syndicate of University of Cambridge in 1986, categorized mangal species into 3 groups : major elements, minor elements, and mangal associates.

Major elements are recognized by Tomlison, as ‘strict or true mangroves’, because they posses all or most of the following features :
1. complete fidelity to the mangrove environment : that is, they occur only in mangal and do not extend into terrestrial communities
2. a major role in the structure of the community and the ability to form pure stands
3. morphological specialization that adapts them to their environment; the most abvious are aerial roots, associated with gas exchange, and vivipary of the embryo, whose functional significance is not clear
4. some physiological mechanism for salt exclusion so that they can grow in sea water; they frequently visibly excrete salt
5. taxonomic isolation from terrestrial relatives.  Strict mangroves are separated from their relatives at least at the generic level and often at the subfamily or family level.  For minor mangrove, the isolation is mostly at the generic level.

Family
Genus
number of species
Species
Avicenniaceae
Avicennia
8
A. alba, A. balanophora, A. bicolor, A. eucalyptifolia, A. germinans, A. lanata, A. marina, A. officinalis,A. schaueriana, A. africana
Combretaceae
Laguncularia
1
L. racemosa
Lumnitzera
2
L. littorea , L. racemosa,  L. x rosea ( L. racemosa x L. littorea )
Arecaceae
Nypa
1
N. fruticens
Rhisophoraceae
Bruguiera
6
B. cylindrica, B. exaristata,  B. parviflora, B. hainesii, B. sexangula, B. gymnorhiza
Ceriops
2
C. decandra, C. tagal
Kandelia
1
K. candel
Rhizophora
8
R. apiculata, R. mangle, R. mucronata, R. racemosa, R. samoensis, R. stylosa,R x lamarckii ( R. apiculata x R. stylosa ), R. x annamalayana ( R. apiculata x R. mucronata ), R. x selala ( R. stylosa x R samoensis ),  R x harrisonii ( R. mangal x R. stylosa )
Lythraceae
Sonneratia
5
S. alba, S. apetala, S. caseolaris, S. griffithii, S. lanceloata, S. ovata, S. x gulngai ( S. alba x S. caseolaris )



 The minor species are distinguished by their inability to form a conspicuous element of the vegetation.  They may occupy peripheral habitats and only rarely form pure communities.

Family
Genus
number of species
Species
Bombacaceae
Camptostemon
2
C. philippinensis, C. schultzii
Eupohrbiaceae
Excoecaria
2
E. agallocha, E. indica
Lythraceae
Pemphis
1
P. acidula, P. madagascariensis
Meliaceae
Xylocarpus
2
X. granatum, X. mekongensis, X. moluccensis
Myrsinaceae
Aegiceras
2
A. corniculatum, A. floridum
Myrtaceae
Osbornia
1
O. octodonta
Pellicieraceae
Pelliciera
1
P. rhixophoreae
Plumbaginaceae
Aegialitis
2
A. annulata, A. roundifolia
Pteridaceae
Acrostichum
3
A. aureum, A. danaeifolium, A. speciosum
Rubiaceae
Scyphiphora
1
S. hyrdophyllacea
Sterculiaceae
Heritiera
3
H. fomes, H. globosa, H. littoralis



Mangoves associates are less distinctive.  They may be herbaceous or subwoody,  dispersed by sea currents, grass or rushes or sedges, ferns, etc.   Gymnosperms and conifers are likely to be excluded in the group.

Family
Genus
Species
Acanthaceae
Acanthus
A. ilicifolius, A. ebracteatus, A. volubilis
Bravaisia

Apocynaceae
Cerbera
C. manghas
Asteraceae
Phoenix
P. paludosa
Bignoniaceae
Dolichandrone
D. spathacea
Boranginaceae
Cordia
C. subcordata
Celastraceae
Cassine
C. viburnifolia
Combretaceae
Conocarpus
C. erectus
Cyperaceae
Fimbristylis
F. ferruginea
Eupohrbiaceae
Excoecaria
E. agallocha
Fabaceae
Cynometra
C. iripa, C. ramiflora
goodeniaceae
Scaevola
S. sericea
Lecythidaceae
Barringtonia
B. acutangula, B. asiatica, B. calyptrata, B. racemosa
Malvaceae
Brownlowia
B. tersa
Hibiscus
H. tiliaceus
Thespesia
T. populnea
Meliaceae
Aglaia
A. cucullata
Pandanaceae
Pandanus
P. odoratissimus
etc…



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