Thursday, August 19, 2010

Insecticide

An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. .
.
The use of insecticides is believes to be on of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticide have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems ; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain..
.
Insecticide can be classified by activity, use, chemical family, or mode of action.
. .

.
Classification by Activity

1.Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
2.Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets often improving performance.

. . .

Classification by Type of Chemical

1.Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum and neem extracts, are made by plants as defences against insects.
2.Organic insecticide are synthetic chemical derived from various carbon based chemical.
3.Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals, eg. Arsenates, copper compounds, fluorine compound, and sulfur.

.


Classification by Mode of Action.

1.AChE ( Acetylcholinesterase ) inhibitors
- Carbamates, Organophosphates.

2.Sodium Channel Modulators
- Pyrethroids, Pyrethrins, DDT, Methoxychlor.
3.nAChR ( Niconinic Acetylcholine Receptor ) Agonists
- Nicotine, Neonicotinoids.
4.nAChR ( Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor ) Allosteric Activators
- Spinetoram, Spinosad.
5.nAChR ( Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor ) Channel blockers
- Bensulap, Cartap hybrochloride, Thiocyclam, Thiosultap sodium.
6.Chloride Channel Activators
- Abamectin, Emamectin benzoate, Milbemectin.
7.GABA-Gated Chloride Channel Antagonists
- Cyclodiene ( Chlordane, Endosulfan ), Phenylpyrazoles ( Ethiprole, Fipronil ).
8.Mitochondrial ATP Synthase inhibitors
- Diafenthiuron, Azocyclotin, Cyhexatin, Fenbutatin oxide, Propargite, Tetradifon. .
9.Mitochondrial Complex Electron Transport inhibitors
- Hydramethylnon, Aceqinocyl, Fluacrypyrim, Rotenone, Fenazaquin, Pyrimidifen, Cyanide, Phosphine, Cyenopyrafen.
10.Chitin Biosynthesis inhibitors
- Benzoylureas, Buprofezin.
11.Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel blockers
- Indoxacarb, Metafulmizone.
12.Acetyl CoA Carboxylase inhibitors
- Spirodiclofen, Spiromesifen, Spirotetramat

.
.



Classification by Chemical Family


Aldicarb · Bendiocarb · Carbaryl · Carbofuran · Ethienocarb · Fenoxycarb · Fenobucarb · Propoxur
Aluminium phosphide · Boric acid · Chromated copper arsenate · Copper arsenate · Copper cyanide · Diatomaceous earth · Lead hydrogen arsenate · Paris Green · Scheele's Green
Aldrin · Beta HCH · Carbon tetrachloride ·
Chlordane · Cyclodiene · 1,2DCB ·
1,4DCB · 1,1DCE · 1,2DCE · DDD · DDE ·
DDT · Dicofol · Dieldrin · Endosulfan · Endrin · Heptachlor · Kepone · Lindane · Methoxychlor ·
Mirex · Tetradifon · Toxaphene
Acephate · Azinphos methyl · Bensulide ·
Chlorethoxyfos · Chlorfenvinphos · Chlorpyrifos · Chlorpyrifos methyl · Coumaphos · Demeton S methyl · Diazinon · Dicrotophos · Diisopropyl fluorophosphate · Dimethoate · Dioxathion · Disulfoton · Ethion · Ethoprop · Fenamiphos · Fenitrothion · Fenthion · Fosthiazate · Isoxathion · Malathion · Methamidophos · Methidathion · Mevinphos · Monocrotophos · Naled · Omethoate · Oxydemeton methyl · Parathion · Parathion methyl · Phorate · Phosalone · Phosmet · Phostebupirim · Phoxim · Pirimiphos methyl · Temefos · Terbufos · Tetrachlorvinphos · Tribufos · Trichlorfon
Allethrin · Bifenthrin · Bioallethrin · Cyhalothrin · Cypermethrin · Cyfluthrin · Deltamethrin · Empenthrin · Etofenprox · Fenvalerate · Imiprothrin · Permethrin · Phenothrin · Prallethrin · Pyrethrin · Pyrethrum · Resmethrin · Tetramethrin · Tralomethrin · Transfluthrin
Others
Acetamiprid · Amitraz · Azadirachtin · Chlordimeform · Chlorfenapyr · Clothianidin · Cyromazine · Diflubenzuron · Dinotefuran · Fenazaquin · Fipronil · Flufenoxuron · Hydramethylnon · Imidacloprid · Indoxacarb · Limonene · Lufenuron · Methoprene · Nitenpyram · Nithiazine · Pyridaben · Pyriprole · Pyriproxyfen · Ryanodine · Sesamex · Spinosad · Sulfluramid · Tebufenpyrad · Thiacloprid · Thiamethoxam · Veracevine · Xanthone
Metabolites
Oxon · Malaoxon · Paraoxon · TCPy









































..
.
Major Insectcides in Use

Carbofuran
- systemic insecticide
- inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
- group : Carbamate
- highly toxic to birds, vertebrates & humans
- banned in Canada, European Union; granular carbofuran banned in US
- Furadan®, Curater®.
.
Chlorpyrifos
- group : Organophosphate
- inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
- first registered in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company as Dursban® and Lorsban®
- toxicity class : class II
- highly toxic to amphibians, fishes & bees
- Termicide®, Milex®
.
Cypermethrin
- group : Pyrethroid
- used mainly in household to control cockroach, ant, and mosquito
- highly toxin to fish, bees & aquatic insects.
.
λ-Cyhalothrin
- group : Pyrethroid
- Karate®
.
Dimethoate
- Zagro Rogor L-40®
.
Malathion
- group : Organophosphate
- relatively low human toxicity
- Malathion®.
.
White oil
- MoA : blocking the trachea causing suffocation and death
- Alborol®



Source : Wikipedia, IRAC
Post a Comment